Carpet Cleaning Moorpark CA

Carpet Cleaning Moorpark CA

When your carpets or rugs needs cleaning, you can either do it yourself or get the Best Carpet Cleaning Service in Moorpark CA to do it for you. There are many carpet cleaning companies to choose from nowadays. But you may be thinking, “Which is the best carpet cleaning service to go for, or should you do it yourself?”

So naturally you will have to preserve the quality of your carpets to ensure their life expectancy. Carpets act as the first defense against dust, grit and soil and while vacuuming on a regular basis will alleviate some of these problems. There is no substitute for Professional Carpet Cleaning, which will remove the deeper soils and maintain the freshness of your carpet.

By having your carpets cleaned professionally you will ensure a far greater level of hygiene than normal vacuuming. Carpets naturally soak up airborne dust allergies, which settle deep among the fibers of the carpet but these allergies can be easily prevented with professional cleaning. Having your carpets cleaned by California Carpet Cleaning professionals will extend their life expectancy and ensure they retain their freshness. By not cleaning properly you will reduce its life expectancy and risk having to replace them with new carpets in the future.

How Much Does Professional Carpet Cleaning Cost in Moorpark CA?

Carpet manufacturers design their products to disguise dirt and what might appear to be a clean carpet will often be laden with dirt. Sand and grit can cause considerable damage to your carpet if they are left in the fibers. By hiring professional cleaners you can ensure the invisible deeper soils are thoroughly removed and disposed of safely. The benefits of having your carpets professionally cleaned is to ensure your investment appears as fresh and bright as when you first laid them. Steam cleaning is highly recommended by carpet cleaning companies in Moorpark California because it will provide your carpet with a much deeper clean. Regular vacuuming might work on the surface but only steam cleaning can remove the deepest dirt from the carpet. Steam cleaning is far superior to shampoo cleaning because the process ensures there is no chemical residue left behind. California Carpet Cleaning Services are also able to help assess your carpet and take proper care of your investment. Another welcome aspect of steam cleaning is that any undesirable stains will be removed and are less likely to remain as a dirty residue. The removal of sticky residues is very important because otherwise they attract dust that will give your carpet an unattractive appearance.

carpet cleaning service cost

Studies also show that there are many health benefits of carpet cleaning in Moorpark CA. Having clean carpets can prevent young children and adults with asthma, eczema and other allegories suffering from excessive dust, germs or pet hair. As health concerns grow it becomes increasingly important for carpets to be maintained to ensure their well-being and appearance. When properly maintained, a carpet can improve your health, air quality and act as a filter absorbing soil, debris, and other contaminants such as hair and sand. Routine carpet cleaning should be considered part of a healthy lifestyle. By having your carpets steam cleaned and deodorized, this will keep outdoor contaminants such as dirt, sand and other pollutants from under control throughout the year. Some of the other benefits of extracting pollutants from carpets include reducing health problems such as cancers and other respiratory illnesses. The absence of dust particles in your carpet is almost certainly beneficial to your lungs, and this will subsequently improve the lives of young children or anyone with asthma or dust allergies.

Any home with young children will enjoy the benefit of having steam cleaned carpets because a fresh voluminous carpet will minimize cuts and injuries from accidental falls. If you receive a professional clean then the natural freshness of the carpet will ensure a cushioning surface for young children. Even if your home or office does not have any young children, everyone instinctively notices the difference between a dirty carpet and a clean surface maintained by professionals. Cleaning your carpet on your own requires time, money and effort. By allowing professionals the opportunity to clean your carpets from germs, you will save yourself a considerable amount of time and effort. Some of the added benefits who hire professional California carpet cleaners are that any heavy lifting will be carried out by the respective carpet company, saving you the initial trouble, and they will also lay down protective padding underneath the furniture to help protect your carpet while it dries.

carpet cleaning on

Another financial benefit of getting your carpets cleaned by Carpet Cleaning California professionals is that if you rent a home then getting your carpets cleaned can save you serious money in the long term. Anyone renting for a considerable period of time will have paid out at least one month’s rent to ensure their tenancy. By allowing your carpets to deteriorate will present an unforgiving landlord the ideal opportunity to claim all or some of your deposit for cleaning expenses. By having your carpets professionally cleaned before the end of tenancy will be far most cost effective and reassuring in the long term. If you own a property then you can save money with professional cleaning than replacing carpets with nasty stains. With children and pets running amok on carpet areas, the high traffic areas are inevitably going to get damaged through excessive use, spillages, dirt and exposure to sunlight. Having your carpets cleaned every 6 months can make enormous difference to your lifestyle, health and long-term finances.

Buying a new carpet is a considerable investment for any household or business. By having your carpets cleaned professionally you will ensure comfortable living, clean health and financial benefits, which cannot be obtained through regular vacuuming. Moorpark Carpet Cleaners in California provides enormous benefits and will ultimately preserve the quality of your carpet for years to come.

Carpet Cleaning Company

carpet and floor cleaning service One of the Ardabil Carpets A small rug

A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool, but, since the 20th century, synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or polyester are often used, as these fibers are less expensive than wool. The pile usually consists of twisted tufts which are typically heat-treated to maintain their structure. The term "carpet" is often used interchangeably with the term "rug", although the term "carpet" can be applied to a floor covering that covers an entire house, whereas a "rug" is generally no bigger than a single room, and traditionally does not even span from one wall to another, and is typically not even attached as part of the floor.

Carpets are used for a variety of purposes, including insulating a person's feet from a cold tile or concrete floor, making a room more comfortable as a place to sit on the floor (e.g., when playing with children or as a prayer rug), reducing sound from walking (particularly in apartment buildings) and adding decoration or colour to a room. Carpets can be made in any colour by using differently dyed fibers. Carpets can have many different types of patterns and motifs used to decorate the surface. In the 2000s, carpets are used in industrial and commercial establishments such as retail stores and hotels and in private homes. In the 2010s, a huge range of carpets and rugs are available at many price and quality levels, ranging from inexpensive, synthetic carpets that are mass-produced in factories and used in commercial buildings to costly hand-knotted wool rugs which are used in private homes of wealthy families.

Carpets can be produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric, made using needle felts, knotted by hand (in oriental rugs), made with their pile injected into a backing material (called tufting), flatwoven, made by hooking wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric or embroidered. Carpet is commonly made in widths of 12 feet (3.7 m) and 15 feet (4.6 m) in the USA, 4 m and 5 m in Europe. Since the 20th century, where necessary for wall-to-wall carpet, different widths of carpet can be seamed together with a seaming iron and seam tape (formerly it was sewn together) and fixed to a floor over a cushioned underlay (pad) using nails, tack strips (known in the UK as gripper rods), adhesives, or occasionally decorative metal stair rods. Wall-to-wall carpet is distinguished from rugs or mats, which are loose-laid floor coverings, as wall-to-wall carpet is fixed to the floor and covers a much larger area.

Child labour has often been used in Asia for hand knotting rugs. The GoodWeave labelling scheme used throughout Europe and North America assures that child labour has not been used: importers pay for the labels, and the revenue collected is used to monitor centres of production and educate previously exploited children.[1]

A carpet seller in Jaipur, India

The term carpet comes from Old French carpite. One derivation of the term states that the French term came from the Old Italian carpita, from the verb "carpire" meaning to pluck.[2][3] The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the term "carpet" was first used in English in the late 13th century, with the meaning "coarse cloth", and by the mid-14th century, "tablecloth, [or] bedspread".[4] The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the term comes "...from Old French carpite "heavy decorated cloth, carpet," from Medieval Latin or Old Italian carpita "thick woolen cloth," probably from Latin carpere "to card, pluck," probably so called because it was made from unraveled, shred[d]ed, "plucked" fabric".[4] The meaning of the term "carpet" shifted in the 15th century to refer to floor coverings.[4]

The term "carpet" is often used interchangeably with the term "rug". Some sources define a carpet as stretching from wall to wall.[5] Another definition treats rugs as of lower quality or of smaller size, with carpets quite often having finished ends. A third common definition is that a carpet is permanently fixed in place while a rug is simply laid out on the floor. Historically, the term "carpet" was also applied to table and wall coverings, as carpets were not commonly used on the floor in European interiors until the 15th century.

The term "rug" was first used in English in the 1550s, with the meaning "coarse fabric". The term is of "...Scandinavian origin; compare Norwegian dialectal rugga "coarse coverlet," from Old Norse rogg "shaggy tuft," from Proto-Germanic *rawwa-, perhaps related to rag (n.) and rough (adj.)."[6] The meaning of "rug" "...evolved to "coverlet, wrap" (1590s), then "mat for the floor" (1808)".[6]

Modern carpet illustrating a camel caravan on the Silk Road

The carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric. The pile can be plush or Berber. Plush carpet is a cut pile and Berber carpet is a loop pile. There are new styles of carpet combining the two styles called cut and loop carpeting. Normally many colored yarns are used and this process is capable of producing intricate patterns from predetermined designs (although some limitations apply to certain weaving methods with regard to accuracy of pattern within the carpet). These carpets are usually the most expensive due to the relatively slow speed of the manufacturing process. These are very famous in Iran, India, Pakistan, and Arabia.

A toranj medallion, a common design in Persian carpets

These carpets are more technologically advanced. Needle felts are produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using barbed and forked needles forming an extremely durable carpet. These carpets are normally found in commercial settings such as hotels and restaurants where there is frequent traffic.

Main article: Knotted-pile carpet A traditional rug being woven on a carpet loom

On a knotted pile carpet (formally, a "supplementary weft cut-loop pile" carpet), the structural weft threads alternate with a supplementary weft that rises at right angles to the surface of the weave. This supplementary weft is attached to the warp by one of three knot types (see below), such as shag carpet which was popular in the 1970s, to form the pile or nap of the carpet. Knotting by hand is most prevalent in oriental rugs and carpets. Kashmir carpets are also hand-knotted. Pile carpets, like flat carpets, can be woven on a loom. Both vertical and horizontal looms have been used in the production of European and oriental carpets. The warp threads are set up on the frame of the loom before weaving begins. A number of weavers may work together on the same carpet. A row of knots is completed and cut. The knots are secured with (usually one to four) rows of weft. The warp in woven carpet is usually cotton and the weft is jute.[citation needed]

There are several styles of knotting, but the two main types of knot are the symmetrical (also called Turkish or Ghiordes) and asymmetrical (also called Persian or Senna). Contemporary centres of knotted carpet production are: Lahore and Peshawar (Pakistan), Kashmir (India), Mirzapur, Bhadohi,[7]Tabriz (Iran), Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Northern Africa, Nepal, Spain, Turkmenistan, and Tibet. The importance of carpets in the culture of Turkmenistan is such that the national flag features a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five carpet guls (designs used in producing rugs). Kashmir is known for handknotted carpets of silk or wool. Child labour has often been used in Asia for hand knotting rugs. The GoodWeave labelling scheme used throughout Europe and North America assures that child labour has not been used: importers pay for the labels, and the revenue collected is used to monitor centres of production and educate previously exploited children.[1]

Swatches of tufted carpet Drying carpets in a village workshop at the Ourika Valley, Morocco

These are carpets that have their pile injected into a backing material, which is itself then bonded to a secondary backing made of a woven hessian weave or a man made alternative to provide stability. The pile is often sheared in order to achieve different textures. This is the most common method of manufacturing of domestic carpets for floor covering purposes in the world.

A flatweave carpet is created by interlocking warp (vertical) and weft (horizontal) threads. Types of oriental flatwoven carpet include kilim, soumak, plain weave, and tapestry weave. Types of European flatwoven carpets include Venetian, Dutch, damask, list, haircloth, and ingrain (aka double cloth, two-ply, triple cloth, or three-ply).

A hooked rug is a simple type of rug handmade by pulling strips of cloth such as wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric such as burlap. This type of rug is now generally made as a handicraft. The process of creating a hooked rug is called Rug hooking[8][9]

Unlike woven carpets, embroidery carpets' are not formed on a loom. Their pattern is established by the application of stitches to a cloth (often linen) base. The tent stitch and the cross stitch are two of the most common. Embroidered carpets were traditionally made by royal and aristocratic women in the home, but there has been some commercial manufacture since steel needles were introduced (earlier needles were made of bone) and linen weaving improved in the 16th century. Mary, Queen of Scots, is known to have been an avid embroiderer. 16th century designs usually involve scrolling vines and regional flowers (for example, the Bradford carpet). They often incorporate animal heraldry and the coat of arms of the maker. Production continued through the 19th century. Victorian embroidered carpet compositions include highly illusionistic, 3-dimensional flowers. Patterns for tiled carpets made of a number of squares, called Berlin wool work, were introduced in Germany in 1804, and became extremely popular in England in the 1830s. Embroidered carpets can also include other features such as a pattern of shapes, or they can even tell a story.

A Moldovan stamp featuring a carpet

Carpet can be formulated from many single or blended natural and synthetic fibres. Fibres are chosen for durability, appearance, ease of manufacture, and cost. In terms of scale of production, the dominant yarn constructions are polyamides (nylons) and polypropylene with an estimated 90% of the commercial market.[10]

Since the 20th century, nylon is one of the most common materials for the construction of carpets. Both nylon 6 and nylon 6-6 are used. Nylon can be dyed topically or dyed in a molten state (solution dying). Nylon can be printed easily and has excellent wear characteristics. Due to nylon's excellent wear-resistance, it is widely used in industrial and commercial carpeting. In carpets, nylon tends to stain easily because of the dye sites which exist on the fibre. These dye sites need to be filled in order to give nylon carpet any type of stain resistance. As nylon is petroleum-based it varies in price with the price of oil.

Polypropylene, a polyolefin stiffer than the cheaper polyethylene, is used to produce carpet yarns because it is still less expensive than the other materials used for carpets. It is difficult to dye and does not wear as well as wool or nylon. Polypropylene, sometimes referred to simply as "olefin", is commonly used to construct berber carpets. Large looped olefin berber carpets are usually only suited for light domestic use and tend to mat down quickly. Berber carpets with smaller loops tend to be more resilient and retain their new appearance longer than large looped berber styles. Commercial grade level-loop carpets have very small loops, and commercial grade cut-pile styles can be well constructed. When made with polypropylene, commercial grade styles wear very well, making them very suitable for areas with heavy foot traffic such as offices. Polypropylene carpets are known to have good stain resistance, but not against oil- based agents. If a stain does set, it can be difficult to clean. Commercial grade carpets can be glued directly to the floor or installed over a 1/4" thick, 8-pound density padding. Outdoor grass carpets are usually made from polypropylene.[11]

A wool carpet

Wool has excellent durability, can be dyed easily and is fairly abundant. When blended with synthetic fibres such as nylon the durability of wool is increased. Blended wool yarns are extensively used in production of modern carpet, with the most common blend being 80% wool to 20% synthetic fibre, giving rise to the term "80/20". Wool is relatively expensive and consequently it only comprises a small portion of the market.

The polyester known as "PET" (polyethylene terephthalate) is used in carpet manufacturing in both spun and filament constructions. After the price of raw materials for many types of carpet rose in the early 2000s, polyester became more competitive. Polyester has good physical properties and is inherently stain-resistant because it is hydrophobic, and, unlike nylon, does not have dye sites. Colour is infused in a molten state (solution dyeing). Polyester has the disadvantage that it tends to crush or mat down easily. It is typically used in mid- to low-priced carpeting.

Another polyester, "PTT" (Polytrimethylene terephthalate), also called Sorona or 3GT (Dupont) or Corterra (Shell), is a variant of PET. Lurgi Zimmer PTT was first patented in 1941, but it was not produced until the 1990s, when Shell Chemicals developed the low-cost method of producing high-quality 1,3 propanediol (PDO), the starting raw material for PTT Corterra Polymers. DuPont subsequently commercialized a biological process for making 1,3-propanediol from corn syrup, imparting significant renewable content on the corresponding Sorona polyester carpet fibers.[12] These carpet fibers have resiliency comparable to nylon.[13]

Acrylic is a synthetic material first created by the Dupont Corporation in 1941 but has gone through various changes since it was first introduced. In the past, acrylic carpet used to fuzz or "pill" easily. This happened when the fibres degraded over time and short strands broke away with contact or friction. Over the years, new types of acrylics have been developed to alleviate some of these problems, although the issues have not been completely removed. Acrylic is fairly difficult to dye but is colourfast, washable, and has the feel and appearance of wool, making it a good rug fabric.

The Pazyryk Carpet, the oldest surviving carpet in the world (Armenia or Persia, 5th century BCE.) The Czartoryski carpet, made with a cotton warp, a silk weft and pile, and metal wrapped thread (Iran, 17th century)

The knotted pile carpet probably originated in the Caspian Sea area (Northern Iran) [14] or the Armenian Highland.[15] Although there is evidence of goats and sheep being sheared for wool and hair which was spun and woven as far back at the 7th millennium, the earliest surviving pile carpet is the "Pazyryk carpet", which dates from the 5th-4th century BC. It was excavated by Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko in 1949 from a Pazyryk burial mound in the Altai Mountains in Siberia. This richly coloured carpet is 200 x 183 cm (6'6" x 6'0") and framed by a border of griffins.[16]

Although claimed by many cultures, this square tufted carpet, almost perfectly intact, is considered by many experts to be of Caucasian, specifically Armenian, origin. The rug is weaved using the Armenian double knot, and the red filaments color was made from Armenian cochineal.[17][18] The eminent authority of ancient carpets, Ulrich Schurmann, says of it, "From all the evidence available I am convinced that the Pazyryk rug was a funeral accessory and most likely a masterpiece of Armenian workmanship".[19] Gantzhorn concurs with this thesis. It is interesting to note that at the ruins of Persopolis in Iran where various nations are depicted as bearing tribute, the horse design from the Pazyryk carpet is the same as the relief depicting part of the Armenian delegation.[15] The historian Herodotus writing in the 5th century BC also informs us that the inhabitants of the Caucasus wove beautiful rugs with brilliant colors which would never fade.[20]

Main article: Afghan rug

There has recently been a surge in demand for Afghan carpets, although many Afghan carpet manufacturers market their products under the name of a different country.[21] The carpets are made in Afghanistan, as well as by Afghan refugees who reside in Pakistan and Iran. Famous Afghan rugs include the Shindand or Adraskan (named after local Afghan villages), woven in the Herat area, in western Afghanistan.

Afghan carpets are also quite commonly known as Afghan rugs - are a unique and well recognized handmade material design that originates from Afghanistan. They intricate detailing mainly using designs from traditional tribal designs including Turkmen, Kazakh, Baloch, and Uzbeks. The hand-made rugs come in many patterns and colors, but the traditional and most common example of an Afghan carpet is the octagon-shaped elephant-foot (Bukhara) - The rugs with this print are commonly red in color. Many dyes such as vegetable dyes are used to give the rich colors.[22]

Main article: Armenian carpet

The historian Herodotus writing in the 5th century BC also informs us that the inhabitants of the Caucasus wove beautiful rugs with brilliant colors which would never fade.[23] Various rug fragments have been excavated in Armenia dating back to the 7th century BC or earlier. The oldest, single, surviving knotted carpet in existence is the Pazyryk carpet, excavated from a frozen tomb in Siberia, dated from the 5th to the 3rd century BC, now in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. This square tufted carpet, almost perfectly intact, is considered by many experts to be of Caucasian, specifically Armenian, origin. The eminent authority of ancient carpets, Ulrich Schurmann, says of it, "From all the evidence available I am convinced that the Pazyryk rug was a funeral accessory and most likely a masterpiece of Armenian workmanship".[23] Gantzhorn concurs with this thesis. It is interesting to note that at the ruins of Persepolis in Iran where various nations are depicted as bearing tribute, the horse design from the Pazyryk carpet is the same as the relief depicting part of the Armenian delegation. Armenian carpets were renowned by foreigners who travelled to Artsakh; the Arab geographer and historian Al-Masudi noted that, among other works of art, he had never seen such carpets elsewhere in his life.[24]

Art historian Hravard Hakobyan notes that "Artsakh carpets occupy a special place in the history of Armenian carpet-making."[25] Common themes and patterns found on Armenian carpets were the depiction of dragons and eagles. They were diverse in style, rich in colour and ornamental motifs, and were even separated in categories depending on what sort of animals were depicted on them, such as artsvagorgs (eagle-carpets), vishapagorgs (dragon-carpets) and otsagorgs (serpent-carpets).[25] The rug mentioned in the Kaptavan inscriptions is composed of three arches, "covered with vegatative ornaments", and bears an artistic resemblance to the illuminated manuscripts produced in Artsakh.[25]

The art of carpet weaving was in addition intimately connected to the making of curtains as evidenced in a passage by Kirakos Gandzaketsi, a 13th-century Armenian historian from Artsakh, who praised Arzu-Khatun, the wife of regional prince Vakhtang Khachenatsi, and her daughters for their expertise and skill in weaving.[26]

Main article: Azerbaijani rug

The Gultapin excavations discovered several carpet weaving tools which date back to the 4th-3rd millennium BC. According to Iranica Online "The main weaving zone was in the eastern Transcaucasus south of the mountains that bisect the region diagonally, the area now comprised in the Azerbaijan SSR; it is the homeland of a Turkic population known today as Azeri. Other ethnic groups also practiced weaving, some of them in other parts of the Caucasus, but they were of lesser importance." [27] Azerbaijan was one of the most important centers of carpet weaving and as a result of that, several different schools have evolved. While traditionally schools are divided into four main branches, each region has its own version of the carpets. The Schools are divided into four main branches: Kuba-Shirvan, Ganja-Kazakh carpet-weaving school, The Baku carpet school, Karabakh school of carpet weaving.

Brussels Wilton The Brussels Loom was introduced into England towards the middle of the eighteenth century marked the beginning of a new era in carpet-weaving. It was the first loom on which a pile carpet could be woven mechanically, the pile consisting of rows of loops, formed over wires inserted weftwise during weaving and subsequently withdrawn. Brussels was the first type of carpet to be woven in a loom incorporating the jacquard pattern selecting mechanism and in 1849 power was applied to the loom by Biglow in the U.S.A.

Later when bladed wires were developed the pile loops were severed on withdrawal of the blade wires to produce a carpet known as Wilton. after this development the loom became known as the Wilton loom, and in modern usage the designation wilton applies to both cut-pile and loop-pile carpets made in this loom. The latter now variously described as Brussels-Wilton, round wire Wilton, loop-pile Wilton, and round wired jacquard. the methods of manufacture, including the principles of designing, preparatory processes, and weaving, are the same in most respects for both Brussels and Wilton qualities. The chief difference between them is that whereas Brussels loop-pile is secured satisfactorily by the insertion of two picks of weft to each wire ( 2-shot) the Wilton Wilton cut-pile is sometime woven similarly ( 2-shot) but more often with three picks of weft to each wire ( 3-shot) to ensure that the tufts are firmly secured in the carpet backing.

Brussels carpet have a smooth slightly ribbed surface and their patterning is well defined, a characteristic feature of the cloth. Closeness of pile rather than height contributes to their neat appearance and hard wearing properties, although they do not simulate the luxury of cut-pile carpets. ( Carpets by George Robinson F.T.I., F.S.D.C. published 1966 Chap 7 Wilton Carpets page 72.)

See also: Oriental rug

As opposed to most antique rug manufactory practices, Chinese carpets were woven almost exclusively for internal consumption. China has a long history of exporting traditional goods; however, it was not until the first half of the 19th century that the Chinese began to export their rugs. Once in contact with western influences, there was a large change in production: Chinese manufactories began to produce art-deco rugs with commercial look and price point. The centuries-old Chinese textile industry is rich in history. While most antique carpets are classified according to a specific region or manufactory, scholars attribute the age of any specific Chinese rug to the ruling emperor of the time. The earliest surviving examples of the craft were produced during the time of Ch'ung Chen, the last emperor of the Chen Dynasty.

An Amritsar rug at the Nazmiyal collection

Carpet weaving may have been introduced into the area as far back as the eleventh century with the coming of the first Muslim conquerors, the Ghaznavids and the Ghauris, from the West. It can with more certainty be traced to the beginning of the Mughal Dynasty in the early sixteenth century, when the last successor of Timur, Babar, extended his rule from Kabul to India to found the Mughal Empire. Under the patronage of the Mughals, Indian craftsmen adopted Persian techniques and designs. Carpets woven in the Punjab made use of motifs and decorative styles found in Mughal architecture.

Akbar, a Mogul emperor, is accredited to introducing the art of carpet weaving to India during his reign. The Mughal emperors patronized Persian carpets for their royal courts and palaces. During this period, he brought Persian craftsmen from their homeland and established them in India. Initially, the carpets woven showed the classic Persian style of fine knotting. Gradually it blended with Indian art. Thus the carpets produced became typical of the Indian origin and gradually the industry began to diversify and spread all over the subcontinent. During the Mughal period, the carpets made on the Indian subcontinent became so famous that demand for them spread abroad. These carpets had distinctive designs and boasted a high density of knots. Carpets made for the Mughal emperors, including Jahangir and Shah Jahan, were of the finest quality. Under Shah Jahan's reign, Mughal carpet weaving took on a new aesthetic and entered its classical phase.[citation needed] Indian carpets are well known for their designs with attention to detail and presentation of realistic attributes. The carpet industry in India flourished more in its northern part with major centres found in Kashmir, Jaipur, Agra and Bhadohi.

Indian carpets are known for their high density of knotting. Hand-knotted carpets are a speciality and widely in demand in the West. The carpet industry in India has been successful in establishing social business models that help underprivileged sections of the society.[28] Notable examples of social entrepreneurship ventures are Jaipur rugs,[29]Fabindia.[30]

Another category of Indian rugs which, though quite popular in most of the western countries, have not received much press, is hand-woven rugs of Khairabad (Citapore rugs).[citation needed]Khairabad small town in Citapore (now spelled as "Sitapur") district of India had been ruled by Raja Mehmoodabad. Khairabad (Mehmoodabad Estate) was part of Oudh province which had been ruled by shi'i Muslims having Persian linkages. Citapore rugs made in Khairabad and neighbouring areas are all hand-woven and distinct from tufted and knotted rugs. Flat weave is the basic weaving technique of Citapore rugs and generally cotton is the main weaving material here but jute, rayon and chenille are also popular. IKEA and Agocha have been major buyers of rugs from this area.

Main article: Pakistani rug

The art of weaving developed in South Asia at a time when few other civilizations employed it. Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro– ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilization– have established that the inhabitants used spindles and spun a wide variety of weaving materials. Some historians consider that the Indus Valley civilization first developed the use of woven textiles. As of the late 1990s, hand-knotted carpets were among Pakistan's leading export products and their manufacture is the second largest cottage and small industry. Pakistani craftsmen have the capacity to produce any type of carpet using all the popular motifs of gulls, medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs in various combinations.[31] At the time of independence, manufacturing of carpets was set up in Sangla Hill, a small town of District Sheikhupura. Chaudary Mukhtar Ahmad Member son of Maher Janda introduced and taught this art to locals and immigrants. He is considered founder of this industry in Pakistan. Sangla Hill is now a focal point in Carpet Industry in Pakistan. Almost all the exporters and manufacturers who are running their business at Lahore, Faisalabad and Karachi have their area offices in Sangla Hill.

Main article: Persian carpet A Tree of Life pattern The Carpet Seller (Giulio Rosati)

The Persian carpet is a part of Persian (Iranian) art and culture. Carpet-weaving in Persia dates back to the Bronze Age. The earliest surviving corpus of Persian carpets come from the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in the 16th century. However, painted depictions prove a longer history of production. There is much variety among classical Persian carpets of the 16th and 17th century. Common motifs include scrolling vine networks, arabesques, palmettes, cloud bands, medallions, and overlapping geometric compartments rather than animals and humans.[citation needed] This is because Islam, the dominant religion in that part of the world, forbids their depiction.[citation needed] Still, some show figures engaged either in the hunt or feasting scenes. The majority of these carpets are wool, but several silk examples produced in Kashan survive.[32]

Iran is also the world's largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three quarters of the world's total output and having a share of 30% of world's export markets.[33][34] Iran is also the maker of the largest handmade carpet in history, measuring 60,546 square feet.[35][36]

Main article: Scandinavian rugs Vintage Scandinavian Rug Scandinavian flat weave rug at the Nazmiyal collection

Scandinavian rugs are among the most popular of all weaves in modern design. Preferred by influential modernist thinkers, designers, and advocates for a new aesthetic in the mid-twentieth century, Scandinavian rugs have become very widespread in many different avenues of contemporary interior design. With a long history of adaptation and evolution, the tradition of Scandinavian rug-making is among the most storied of all European rug-making traditions.

Main article: Turkish carpet Oushak (Usak) carpet (late 19th century) Kayseri prayer rug from Anatolia, Turkey

Turkish carpets (also known as Anatolian), whether hand knotted or flat woven, are among the most well known and established hand crafted art works in the world.[37] Historically: religious, cultural, environmental, sociopolitical and socioeconomic conditions created widespread utilitarian need and have provided artistic inspiration among the many tribal peoples and ethnic groups in Central Asia and Turkey.[38] Turks; nomadic or pastoral, agrarian or town dwellers, living in tents or in sumptuous houses in large cities, have protected themselves from the extremes of the cold weather by covering the floors, and sometimes walls and doorways, with carpets and rugs. The carpets are always hand made of wool or sometimes cotton, with occasional additions of silk. These carpets are natural barriers against the cold. Turkish pile rugs and kilims are also frequently used as tent decorations, grain bags, camel and donkey bags, ground cushions, oven covers, sofa covers, bed and cushion covers, blankets, curtains, eating blankets, table top spreads, prayer rugs and for ceremonial occasions.

The oldest records of flat woven kilims come from Çatalhöyük Neolithic pottery, circa 7000 B.C. One of the oldest settlements ever to have been discovered, Çatalhöyük is located south east of Konya in the middle of the Anatolian region.[39] The excavations to date (only 3% of the town) not only found carbonized fabric but also fragments of kilims painted on the walls of some of the dwellings. The majority of them represent geometric and stylized forms that are similar or identical to other historical and contemporary designs.[40]

The knotted rug is believed to have reached Asia Minor and the Middle East with the expansion of various nomadic tribes peoples during the latter period of the great Turkic migration of the 8th and 9th centuries. Famously depicted in European paintings of The Renaissance, beautiful Anatolian rugs were often used from then until modern times, to indicate the high economic and social status of the owner.

Women learn their weaving skills at an early age, taking months or even years to complete the beautiful pile rugs and flat woven kilims that were created for their use in every aspect of daily life. As is true in most weaving cultures, traditionally and nearly exclusively, it is women and girls who are both artisan and weaver.[41][42][43]

Main article: Turkmen carpet The largest hand-woven carpet in the world at the Turkmen Carpet Museum in Ashgabat

Türkmen carpet (also called "Bukhara Uzbekistan").

Carpet Cleaners California

who cleans area rugs

California State University, Sacramento (CSUS; Sacramento State, informally Sac State), founded in 1947 as Sacramento State College, is a public comprehensive university in the city of Sacramento, the capital city of the U.S. state of California. It is the eleventh oldest school in the 23-campus California State University system. The university enrolls approximately 30,500 students annually, has an alumni base of 215,000[7] and awards 7,000 degrees annually. The university offers 151 different Bachelor's degrees, 69 Master's degrees, 28 types of teaching credentials, and 2 Doctoral degrees.[8][9] The university also has extensions in Singapore, offering a unique IMBA (International Master's in Business Administration).[10]

The campus is consistently one of the top three destinations among all universities in the state for California Community College students, welcoming over 4,000 new transfers each academic year.[11]

The campus sits on 300 acres, covered with over 3,500 trees and over 1,200 resting in the University Arboretum[12] (formerly the Goethe Arboretum). The university is the site of two National Register of Historic Places, the Julia Morgan House and the terminus of the Pony Express. The Arbor Day Foundation officially declared the university "Tree Campus USA" in 2012. The university has been distinguished as a U.S. President's National & Community Service Honor Roll member in 2013.[13]

The efforts to get a four-year university in Sacramento date back to the 1920s; however, legislation repeatedly failed. Local supporters blamed "pork barrel politics" by Bay Area legislators trying to monopolize higher education.[14] Sacramento State was formally established in 1947 through legislation by State Senator Earl D. Desmond, by playing hardball to get it done – convincing the Senate's finance committee to withhold funding for the University of California until he had a commitment. Later on, Desmond eventually had 11 children and grandchildren graduate from the college.[14]

Founded as Sacramento State College on Sept. 22, 1947, during a time of intense demand for higher education after World War II, Sacramento State shared space with Sacramento Junior College. Sacramento State's first semester of classes consisted of 235 students enrolled in 44 sections.[14] During December 1947, the official mascot "Herky" (short for Hercules) the Hornet was chosen over the Elk, which wasn't considered to be aggressive enough. The college's colors – green and gold symbolizing the foothills and trees, were also established. The next Spring, the college held its first graduation ceremony. A single student, history major John J. Collins, who had transferred from UC Berkeley, graduated.[14] By 1948, the college was already fielding intercollegiate teams in basketball, baseball, and tennis.[14] In Spring 1949, the winning "Fight Hornet Fight" song was composed by Donald McDonald. The State Hornet and Statesman yearbook were first published in 1949.[14]

Several sites for a permanent home for the college were considered. A site at 5th Street and Broadway, a site near Fruitridge and Stockton Boulevard, and a site in the Pocket Area of South Sacramento were all rejected.[14] In 1949, the state purchased 244 acres of what was then peach farm land to be the site of the new college at $1,650 to $1,800 an acre.[15] In December 1952, the school left the Sacramento City College property and moved to its permanent location on the banks of the American River. On February 9, 1953, the then 289-acre campus opened to approximately 2,400 students with a parade through town called "GO EAST WITH WEST", in reference to President West.[14] Parking has notoriously been a problem at the university, and since the beginning, drivers were confronted by a sea of mud. Students would simply drive as close to the buildings as they could and park.[14]

Construction began in 1951. By 1962, 30 new structures had been built and occupied. A campus landmark was created when the Guy West Bridge was erected – a bridge modeled after the Golden Gate Bridge and named after the college's founding president.

In 1955, the first Hornet football team scored its first victory, against Southern Oregon College. Jackrabbits were a problem in the early years and landscapers were permitted to shoot them on sight through the 1960s.[14] In 1972, the school became California State University, Sacramento. In 2004, it formally adopted Sacramento State as its primary name; it had been used in athletics for some time. Today, Sacramento State is the only major four-year comprehensive university in the city of Sacramento.

The university underwent a major expansion in the Korean War years, with the 'heart' of the campus residing in Douglass Hall, Shasta Hall, Sacramento Hall (the administration building).

In 1975, the University Union opened its doors, originally comprising 65,000 square feet. In 1981, the Sacramento State Aquatic Center was established. The Center for California Studies was established the following year. In 1986, Sacramento State established a Master Plan that called for over $100 million in growth. During that same year, the university came within hours of being deliberately flooded as officials contemplated blowing floodgates to avoid a massive levee failure in Sacramento. The 1990s saw additional growth, constructing more than 1.2 million square-feet of space. In 1992, Hornet Stadium was renovated, providing capacity for 26,000 patrons.

In 2000 and 2004, the campus hosted the U.S. Olympic Track and Field Trials. In 2003, Dr. Alexander Gonzalez was appointed the 11th president of the University. In his first year, he launched Destination 2010, an initiative focusing on reforming academic programs and constructing new facilities.

Sacramento State is organized into seven academic colleges and a college of continuing education. The university is also a member of the consortium that operates Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, offering curricula in marine sciences. In keeping with its proximity to a burgeoning electronics industry, the university is developing expanded applications of technology to learn through computerized and televised instruction over a wide area of Northern California.[16]

The university reached an important strategic milestone. Seven years ago, Sacramento State launched Destination 2010, an initiative focused on creating excellent academic programs, new student facilities and a more welcoming campus culture and environment. During that time, the campus constructed the four-story Academic Information Research Center, Parking Structure III (which at 3,000 spaces is the largest in the CSU system), the new Hornet Bookstore, Eli and Edythe Broad Athletic Fieldhouse, and the American River Courtyard residence hall (with 600 beds).[16]

Many prominent icons have lectured or performed at Sacramento State, including Martin Luther King, Jr., Jimi Hendrix, Sheryl Crow, Oliver Stone, Jesse Jackson, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Wangari Maathai, John Kerry, Stokely Carmichael, Woody Harrelson, Maya Soetoro-Ng and Chuck D.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Shasta Hall, many people say, is haunted. Students have talked for years about a ghost in the building's theatre who disrupts play openings. Some think is a state building inspector who fell to his death in the building before it was completed.[14] Now a popular coffee spot, the Roundhouse was controversial when it was built in 1969. Its design put off many people, and President Robert Johns apparently arranged for its construction without the approval of the CSU Board of Trustees.[14] Sequoia Hall was originally constructed to have an attractive white cement finish, but the funding ran short. Today the building stands with plain concrete.[14]

In 1999, Sacramento State was given authority to award its first ever Doctoral degree, a unique find at the time in the California State University. In the past, authority to award any sort of degree beyond Master's in California's higher public education was given solely to the University of California. The program would be a joint Ph.D in history with the University of California, Santa Barbara. However, this program later phased out due to declining enrollment.[28]

The university was given authority again to award its first ever Doctorate in Education (Ed.D) degree in 2007, with its first graduating class in 2010. Since its establishment, the program has branched into several focuses offering different types of degrees.[29]

In 2012, the university was fully accredited to award its first Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT), with the first class entering in fall of 2012. The program is notoriously competitive, with over 400 applications for just 32 seats.[30] This program eventually will fade out the Master's in Physical Therapy by 2015, following standards set by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education.[31][32]

To date, the university now awards two independent doctorates (Ed.D degree and DPT).

In 2004, the university re-branded itself as Sacramento State, or Sac State for short. The formal name is California State University, Sacramento. The terms CSUS, Cal State Sacramento, Sacramento State University, CSU Sacramento and CS Sacramento are inappropriate, per the Identity Style Guide,[33] even though the university's web address is csus.edu. The university also adopted a new logo and seal that replaced the previous design based on the Seal of California. In addition, the exact shades of Sacramento State's colors of green and gold were formalized in the 2005 Style Guide.

President Gonzalez presented the initiative "Redefining the Possible" in his Spring 2012 convocation following Destination 2010's success. This initiative calls for more construction and campus updates, all part of the CSU Capital Outlay,[34] including demolishing several of the original campus buildings in center campus, constructing a Space Planetarium, a 10,000 seat arena, a 4,800 space parking garage (the largest at CSU), four new 8-story dormitory towers, and a 1,200 seat performing arts center – all to be completed over the next 10 years. Robert S. Nelsen, former President at The University of Texas Pan-American begin his duties as President on July 1, 2015.

In 2007, the faculty overwhelmingly (77% of ballots) approved a "No Confidence" vote for President Alexander Gonzalez.[35] The vote expressed anger over the President's handling of finances, including a $6.5 million structural deficit the university is facing. They also accused him of pumping money into student recruitment and promotion rather than academic affairs. In response to the vote Gonzalez publicly replied, "in the 28 years I have been apart of the California State University...I have yet to encounter the level of incivility, mean-spiritedness and outright distortion that I have found among some members of the Sacramento State community. It embarrasses and saddens me."[36][37]

Similarly in 2011, then Sacramento State Police Chief Daniel Davis also received a "No Confidence" vote by 14 out of 15 sworn in officers. The vote came amid seven alleged sexual assaults that occurred the prior fall semester. This was also the second time the police force voiced concerns about the police chief's mismanagement.[38]

Fall Statistics[39][40][41][42][42][43][44][45][46]

Some 35,000 students applied to Sacramento State for the Fall 2012 semester, marking the record number of applications in one semester. Following a CSU-wide trend, the university has seen growth over the past few years in the number of applications.

The campus is consistently one of the top three destinations amongst all universities in the state for California Community College transfer, welcoming over 4,000 new students each academic year.[11]

Sacramento State historically attempts to admit the top 1/3 of California high school graduates. For students entering Fall 2012, 13,728 freshmen were accepted out of 19,702 applicants, a 69.6% acceptance rate. Enrolled freshmen had an average high school GPA of 3.26 and an average SAT score of 960 (out of a possible 1600 for reading and math scores).[47]

For transfer students, Sacramento State accepted 9,218 of 10,566 applicants in the fall of 2012, an 87.2% acceptance rate. The average transfer GPA for Fall 2012 was 3.05. The university accepted 1,434 graduate students out of 3,044 applications for an acceptance rate of 47.1%.

Approximately 30% of incoming freshman live on-campus in the dorms, while around an additional 25% are traditionally accommodated at the Upper Eastside Lofts just across the street from campus at the F65 crossing, providing housing for about 50% for incoming freshman. For the Fall 2012 semester, just about 50% of incoming freshman came from the Sacramento Region, while around 18% came from the San Francisco Bay Area, an additional 13% came from the Northern CA Foothills, and the remaining came in from Southern California (14.4%), other parts of the United States (0.8%), or Foreign Countries (0.4%).

The average course load of all undergraduate students in 12.2 units, classified as a full-time student. For the most recent commencement, the average number of years taken to complete degrees of the class was 4.8, while the average number of units accumulated was 132 (12 above what is needed for a bachelor's).

Sacramento State north entrance

As the sixth-largest campus of the 23 state universities in California, the main campus is composed of 305 acres (123 ha) in the city of Sacramento and lies adjacent to U.S. Route 50.

The campus is bordered by the American River to the East, Union Pacific Railroad tracks to the West, Folsom Boulevard to the South and H Street to the North. The North end of campus is dominated by the University Arboretum, formerly Goethe Arboretum, and residence halls.

Officially "Tree Campus USA", Sacramento State has more than 3,500 trees, with flower gardens, miles of trails stretching along the nearby river parkway, and student housing with recreational areas such as Lake Natoma and Old Sacramento, in addition to its on-campus housing.

Guy West Bridge, a pedestrian bridge built to scale of the Golden Gate Bridge, spans the nearby American River.

There are more than 30 research and community service centers on campus such as the Center for California Studies, the Institute for Social Research, the Center for Collaborative Policy, the Center for Small Business, and the Office of Water Programs.

At the northeastern edge of campus are the dormitories which can currently accommodate 1,700 students. Southwest of the campus is the Upper Eastside Lofts located near the light rail station at Folsom Boulevard and 65th Street and is owned by University Enterprises. The lofts can accommodate an additional 443 students and is a short walk from campus via Hornet Tunnel. The university also purchased a piece of land south of the campus, Romana Site, and plans to construct housing for faculty and students in an apartment style housing complex that will be a close walk to campus.[34]

The Port of Sacramento Japanese School (ポート・オブ・サクラメント補習授業校 Pōto obu Sakuramento Hoshū Jugyō Kō), a weekend supplementary Japanese school, holds its classes in Amador Hall.[48][49] The school's committee is located in Roseville.[50]

Main article: Sacramento State Aquatic Center

Located on Lake Natoma, 15 miles (24 km) east of the university right next to Nimbus Dam, the Sacramento State Aquatic Center is a cooperative operation of the Associated Students of California State University, Sacramento, University Union of Sacramento State, California Department of Boating and Waterways, and the California Department of Parks and Recreation. The center was established in 1981 and has provided instruction to thousands of students. The center houses the Sacramento State Rowing Team, and is the training destination for many other university rowing teams and clubs. The center hosts several national championships, including the Pac 10 Rowing Championships, Pacific Coast Rowing Championships, NCAA Women's Rowing Championships, IRA National Rowing Championships and the West Coast Conference Rowing Championships.

Main article: Julia Morgan House

Located three miles (5 km) west of Sacramento State and was designed by famous architect Julia Morgan. It was donated to the school in 1966 by Sacramento philanthropist and eugenicist Charles Goethe and was placed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. The school remodeled the house in 2000 honored by the California Heritage Council. Sacramento State uses the home hosting lectures, small meetings, conferences, community events, and it is available for public special events such as receptions and weddings. The home's west wing houses the Life Center and provides health and fitness classes for seniors.

Since 1951, the university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Sacramento State is a Space-grant university and is an affiliate institution of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, sponsoring an outreach program to girls and minorities for excellency in Engineering and Computer Science.[51][52] The school is a member of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. The university is nationally and internationally accredited in specific specialized programs including the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) for Business programs, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for Didactic programs in Dietetics, the American Physical Therapy Association for professional programs in Physical Therapy Administration, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association for programs in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education for various Nursing (CNURED) programs, the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, the National Association of Schools of Music, and the National Association of Schools of Theatre.[53]

Riverside Hall houses the College of Engineering and Computer Science Sequoia Hall houses the College of Natural Sciences & Mathematics

The university comprises the following colleges:

Sacramento State's largest academic major for undergraduates is nursing with nearly 2,000 students,[61] followed by criminal justice with 1,800 students in the department,[62]psychology with 1,600 enrolled,[63] Biological Sciences with over nearly 1,500 students,[64] and Accounting with over 1,200 students.[61]

With nearly 2,700 students, the university's division of Public Affairs is the largest in the California State University (CSU). The university is home to the largest Chemistry program within the CSU with over 400 students.[65] Along with CSUN, it is the only university in California to offer a bachelor's degree in Deaf Studies.[65]

The average class size throughout the university is 38 students.[66] The student-to-faculty ratio is about 28 to 1. (22,461 FTE students to 803 FTE faculty). Most transfer students come from two-year colleges, and about 750 international students from 80 nations. Approximately 160 students from India study abroad at the university, the largest country represented.[67] The school has the largest cooperative education program in the entire state. Students from all majors are placed in paid positions while simultaneously receiving academic credit. Many students work in government-related internships and fellowships. Approximately 36% of students work as volunteers. With nearly 1,800 undergraduate and graduate students, Its criminal justice program is one of the largest in all of North America.[62] The school's College of Engineering and Computer Science is the only university in California to offer a master's degree in Electrical Engineering, and is designated as a national center of cyber-security.[68] The university along with Chico State offers CSU's only Electronic engineering degree option. The College of Business Administration holds is accredited by the AACSB. Sacramento State is the only campus in the CSU to offer a bachelor's degree in Cinematic Arts, Digital cinematography and professional performance.[65] Sacramento State is one of only 649 universities in America to hold this prestigious accrediting, and one of only four universities in California (the others including UC Berkeley, UC San Diego, and CSU Los Angeles).

The university has a significant impact on the Sacramento Region and California statewide economy. It sustains nearly 9,000 jobs in the region and statewide,[84] generates $816 million to the Sacramento economy,[84] and nearly $1 billion to the state economy, with annual spending amongst the campus exceeding $600 million. The campus has the state's largest co-operative education program, placing students in paid positions where they receive academic credit. Biology students help in the Sacramento crime lab with DNA matching while Physical Therapy students are assisting stroke victims regain their mobility, and Government students are staffed at the Capitol. The campus has one of the largest Criminal Justice programs in all of North America with nearly 1,500 undergraduate students and 80 graduate students.[85] Nearly 36% of students volunteer through the Sacramento State Serves program, committing more than 2 million hours of service each year.[84]

The campuses houses over 30 research centers. Notable include:

The College Assistance Migrant Program[93] (CAMP)/High School Equivalent Program is one of nearly 50 federally funded assistance programs that is geared to help migrant or seasonal farmworkers (or children of them) not currently enrolled in school achieve the equivalent of a high school diploma and then subsequently obtain employment. The program serves more than 7,000 annually.

Ranked as one of the top 10 internships in the nation by Forbes,[81] Sacramento State works with the California State government to host the Capital Fellowship program through the Center for California Studies. The Center administers the Jesse M. Unruh Assembly Fellowship, Executive Fellowship, Judicial Administration Fellowship, and California Senate Fellows programs. These programs, known collectively as the Capital Fellows Programs, are nationally recognized. The 18 Assembly Fellows, 18 Senate Fellows, 18 Executive Fellows and 10 Judicial Administration Fellows receive an outstanding opportunity to engage in public service and prepare for future careers, while actively contributing to the development and implementation of public policy in California. The ranks of former fellows and associates include a Justice of the California Supreme Court, members of the United States Congress and the State Legislature, a deputy director of the Peace Corps, corporate executives, and local government and community leaders.

The Center provides services for public disputes at the state, regional, and local levels, ranging from conflicts between agencies to multi-party disputes on major policies. Its methods are mediation, negotiation, and consensus-building. It tries to reach solutions satisfying everyone while avoiding traditional adversarial processes.

Created in 1952 and offering one of the best ranked graduate programs in Speech Pathology Audiology in the US,[77] the Maryjane Rees Language Speech and Hearing Center is a renowned clinic in the Sacramento Region offering low cost services for those with speech and language disorders. Working in conjunction with the department of SPA, the clinic employs five faculty members, 20 part-time faculty, 60 graduate students, and 160 undergraduate students offering them exposure to a wide range of fields. Since its establishment, the clinic now serves approximately 200 clients a week and has since served over 14,000 people aged from 2 to 102 coming from all over different parts of Northern California.

Main article: Sacramento State Hornets See also: Sacramento State Hornets men's basketball, Sacramento State Hornets football, and Sacramento State Men's Rowing Team Athletics wordmark Sacramento State athletics mark

The university offers 21 intercollegiate sports. In hopes of expanding its athletics department even further, the university added its 21st sport, Women's Sand Volleyball in the Spring of 2013.[94] Sacramento State sports teams participate in NCAA Division I (FCS for College Football). Sacramento State's colors are green and gold and its mascot is the Hornet. Conference breakdowns are as follows:

Scholarships are offered in all sports. The football and track and field teams compete in Hornet Stadium, baseball at John Smith Field, and the volleyball, men's and women's basketball and gymnastics teams call Colberg Court home, in honor of legendary volleyball coach Debby Colberg. The baseball stadium was renamed John Smith Field in 2011 in honor of the long-time head coach. Most athletic teams compete in the Big Sky Conference. Sacramento State is the only school from California in the Big Sky, which also includes Eastern Washington, Portland State, Idaho State, Northern Colorado, Northern Arizona and Weber State. UC Davis and Cal Poly joined the Big Sky for football only in 2012.

In 2013, the women's rowing team was granted access into an NCAA-affiliated conference, Conference USA (C-USA). Previously the team competed in Western Intercollegiate Rowing Association (WIRA) which is not recognized as a conference by the NCAA. Effective for the 2013–14 season, along with San Diego State University, the rowing team transferred into C-USA, with 12 rowing members, increasing competition, and providing eligibility for NCAA Championships nationally.[97] However, the team only competed for one season in C-USA; it will move along with San Diego State to the American Athletic Conference beginning in 2014–15.[96]

In 2003 and from 2005 to 2007, the university hosted the NCAA Track and Field Championships at Hornet Stadium.

The California Education Code §89901 identifies auxiliary organizations of the California State University.[98] Sacramento State currently has several auxiliary organizations:[99]

The school hosts Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps, Detachment 088, which trains US Air Force cadets from Sacramento State and University of California Davis. It is currently the largest Detachment in Northern California.[citation needed]

Old United States Army ROTC CSU, Sacramento Shoulder sleeve insignia

An independent Army ROTC program existed until the 1996 when the program was phased out by California State University, Sacramento President Donald Gerth due to the Army's policy of "Don't ask, don't tell".[100] The program was allowed back onto campus in 1997, due to the possibility of the campus losing federal student aid and research funding.[101] In 2002, the program received the gold MacArthur ROTC Leadership Award.[101] The program currently exists as an extension of the Forged Gold Battalion based at University of California, Davis.[102][103]

Associated Students Inc. is a nonprofit corporation that provides programs, services, and student government for Sacramento State, ostensibly through California Education Code.[104] ASI is a California recognized 501(c)(3) corporation. Students elect the Board of Directors, which consists of the President, Executive Vice President, Vice President of Finance, Vice President of University Affairs, Vice President of Academic Affairs, a representative from each of the academic colleges, a representative for undeclared students, and a representative for graduate students. ASI has a budget of over $6 million, which is collected through semesterly student fees and revenues generated through its programs: Peak Adventures, Aquatic Center, Children's Center, and ASI student shop.

Like most other CSUs, ASI offers a unique day care center for faculty, staff, or student's children ages newborn to five years. The ASI Children's Center is accredited by the NAEYC,[105] something that only about 7% of children's centers are endorsed by. Child Development and Teacher Education majors are given the opportunity to work with the Children's Center.

Sacramento State owns and operates multiple public radio stations throughout California in close cooperation with Capital Public Radio.

Two of these stations are KXPR and KXJZ, both on FM. KXPR plays classical and jazz music. KXJZ offers local news and talk programming, including several popular shows like "This American Life", "A Prairie Home Companion", "Car Talk" and others. The listener-supported stations broadcast without commercials and with the support of underwriters. Both stations carry programming from National Public Radio.

KSSU 1580AM is a non-profit free format radio station at Sacramento State and part of Associated Students. The radio station has only a 3-watt signal and is not strong enough to broadcast much farther than the campus, but it can be heard all over the world at kssu.com. KSSU is maintained and funded by the Associated Students. KSSU.COM has formed itself into being one of the premier college radio stations in North America. In 2007 the station won Music Director of the year from the College Music Journal and then returned to New York for the award show in 2008 with 8 nominations for awards by CMJ. In 2008 KSSU.COM was also nominated for College Radio Station of the Year by MTVU. Notable former DJ's include actor and international hip hop artist, Only Won who gave credit to KSSU at the 2010 Distinguished Service award for influencing his career in the music industry.[106]

The State Hornet serves as Sacramento State's student newspaper. The State Hornet publishes 14 or 15 issues each semester and produces content for a daily Web site. The online edition carries the content of the print edition, posted Wednesday mornings, and publishes unique content to the site as generated by the staff. The 1999–2000 staff of the newspaper, led by Editor-in-Chief David Sommers and Faculty Advisor Sylvia Fox, was awarded the National Newspaper Pacemaker Award, considered to be the highest national honor in collegiate journalism and unofficially known as the "Pulitzer Prizes of student journalism."[107] In 2012, the newspaper was placed in the Associated Collegiate Press Pacemaker Finalists category.[108] The newspaper is formally administered by the Department of Communication Studies in the College of Arts and Letters.[109]

The CSUS student activity center is the University Union. The University Union is unique in that it is the original building that was first structured in 1972. It has gone under major renovations throughout the years, with the first phase in 1992 that added a large ballroom and space for food vendors and meeting rooms and other extensions. In 1998, the Union underwent another major renovation again, adding another 180,000 square feet for certain University Outlets such as KSSU and Peak Adventures (which have both since moved). In 2012, the Union yet again underwent major renovations, including adding the university operated restaurant Good Eats, new flooring and stage demolition in the Redwood Room, a complete remodel of Round Table Pizza, an addition of the much requested "prayer room" or "quiet room" on the second floor, a complete remodel of the Terminal Lounge on the second floor, and tearing down the University Center Restaurant and building the new Epicure Restaurant.[110]

Much is offered, including a large fast food court, a game room, public computers with internet access, free WiFi, conference rooms, the university's main auditoria, a prayer room, and many offices for student organizations including the Pride Center, the State Hornet (student paper), and others.

Sac State officials have announced an expansion of The University Union will begin in the first quarter of 2017.[111] This expansion will add 71,000 square feet of space consisting of "a storefront for Peak Adv

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