Clean Carpet Cleaner Hawaiian Gardens CA

Clean Carpet Cleaner Hawaiian Gardens CA

When your carpets or rugs needs cleaning, you can either do it yourself or get the Best Carpet Cleaning Service in Hawaiian Gardens CA to do it for you. There are many carpet cleaning companies to choose from nowadays. But you may be thinking, “Which is the best carpet cleaning service to go for, or should you do it yourself?”

So naturally you will have to preserve the quality of your carpets to ensure their life expectancy. Carpets act as the first defense against dust, grit and soil and while vacuuming on a regular basis will alleviate some of these problems. There is no substitute for Professional Carpet Cleaning, which will remove the deeper soils and maintain the freshness of your carpet.

By having your carpets cleaned professionally you will ensure a far greater level of hygiene than normal vacuuming. Carpets naturally soak up airborne dust allergies, which settle deep among the fibers of the carpet but these allergies can be easily prevented with professional cleaning. Having your carpets cleaned by California Carpet Cleaning professionals will extend their life expectancy and ensure they retain their freshness. By not cleaning properly you will reduce its life expectancy and risk having to replace them with new carpets in the future.

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Carpet manufacturers design their products to disguise dirt and what might appear to be a clean carpet will often be laden with dirt. Sand and grit can cause considerable damage to your carpet if they are left in the fibers. By hiring professional cleaners you can ensure the invisible deeper soils are thoroughly removed and disposed of safely. The benefits of having your carpets professionally cleaned is to ensure your investment appears as fresh and bright as when you first laid them. Steam cleaning is highly recommended by carpet cleaning companies in Hawaiian Gardens California because it will provide your carpet with a much deeper clean. Regular vacuuming might work on the surface but only steam cleaning can remove the deepest dirt from the carpet. Steam cleaning is far superior to shampoo cleaning because the process ensures there is no chemical residue left behind. California Carpet Cleaning Services are also able to help assess your carpet and take proper care of your investment. Another welcome aspect of steam cleaning is that any undesirable stains will be removed and are less likely to remain as a dirty residue. The removal of sticky residues is very important because otherwise they attract dust that will give your carpet an unattractive appearance.

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Studies also show that there are many health benefits of carpet cleaning in Hawaiian Gardens CA. Having clean carpets can prevent young children and adults with asthma, eczema and other allegories suffering from excessive dust, germs or pet hair. As health concerns grow it becomes increasingly important for carpets to be maintained to ensure their well-being and appearance. When properly maintained, a carpet can improve your health, air quality and act as a filter absorbing soil, debris, and other contaminants such as hair and sand. Routine carpet cleaning should be considered part of a healthy lifestyle. By having your carpets steam cleaned and deodorized, this will keep outdoor contaminants such as dirt, sand and other pollutants from under control throughout the year. Some of the other benefits of extracting pollutants from carpets include reducing health problems such as cancers and other respiratory illnesses. The absence of dust particles in your carpet is almost certainly beneficial to your lungs, and this will subsequently improve the lives of young children or anyone with asthma or dust allergies.

Any home with young children will enjoy the benefit of having steam cleaned carpets because a fresh voluminous carpet will minimize cuts and injuries from accidental falls. If you receive a professional clean then the natural freshness of the carpet will ensure a cushioning surface for young children. Even if your home or office does not have any young children, everyone instinctively notices the difference between a dirty carpet and a clean surface maintained by professionals. Cleaning your carpet on your own requires time, money and effort. By allowing professionals the opportunity to clean your carpets from germs, you will save yourself a considerable amount of time and effort. Some of the added benefits who hire professional California carpet cleaners are that any heavy lifting will be carried out by the respective carpet company, saving you the initial trouble, and they will also lay down protective padding underneath the furniture to help protect your carpet while it dries.

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Another financial benefit of getting your carpets cleaned by Carpet Cleaning California professionals is that if you rent a home then getting your carpets cleaned can save you serious money in the long term. Anyone renting for a considerable period of time will have paid out at least one month’s rent to ensure their tenancy. By allowing your carpets to deteriorate will present an unforgiving landlord the ideal opportunity to claim all or some of your deposit for cleaning expenses. By having your carpets professionally cleaned before the end of tenancy will be far most cost effective and reassuring in the long term. If you own a property then you can save money with professional cleaning than replacing carpets with nasty stains. With children and pets running amok on carpet areas, the high traffic areas are inevitably going to get damaged through excessive use, spillages, dirt and exposure to sunlight. Having your carpets cleaned every 6 months can make enormous difference to your lifestyle, health and long-term finances.

Buying a new carpet is a considerable investment for any household or business. By having your carpets cleaned professionally you will ensure comfortable living, clean health and financial benefits, which cannot be obtained through regular vacuuming. Hawaiian Gardens Carpet Cleaners in California provides enormous benefits and will ultimately preserve the quality of your carpet for years to come.

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California State University, Sacramento (CSUS; Sacramento State, informally Sac State), founded in 1947 as Sacramento State College, is a public comprehensive university in the city of Sacramento, the capital city of the U.S. state of California. It is the eleventh oldest school in the 23-campus California State University system. The university enrolls approximately 30,500 students annually, has an alumni base of 215,000[7] and awards 7,000 degrees annually. The university offers 151 different Bachelor's degrees, 69 Master's degrees, 28 types of teaching credentials, and 2 Doctoral degrees.[8][9] The university also has extensions in Singapore, offering a unique IMBA (International Master's in Business Administration).[10]

The campus is consistently one of the top three destinations among all universities in the state for California Community College students, welcoming over 4,000 new transfers each academic year.[11]

The campus sits on 300 acres, covered with over 3,500 trees and over 1,200 resting in the University Arboretum[12] (formerly the Goethe Arboretum). The university is the site of two National Register of Historic Places, the Julia Morgan House and the terminus of the Pony Express. The Arbor Day Foundation officially declared the university "Tree Campus USA" in 2012. The university has been distinguished as a U.S. President's National & Community Service Honor Roll member in 2013.[13]

The efforts to get a four-year university in Sacramento date back to the 1920s; however, legislation repeatedly failed. Local supporters blamed "pork barrel politics" by Bay Area legislators trying to monopolize higher education.[14] Sacramento State was formally established in 1947 through legislation by State Senator Earl D. Desmond, by playing hardball to get it done – convincing the Senate's finance committee to withhold funding for the University of California until he had a commitment. Later on, Desmond eventually had 11 children and grandchildren graduate from the college.[14]

Founded as Sacramento State College on Sept. 22, 1947, during a time of intense demand for higher education after World War II, Sacramento State shared space with Sacramento Junior College. Sacramento State's first semester of classes consisted of 235 students enrolled in 44 sections.[14] During December 1947, the official mascot "Herky" (short for Hercules) the Hornet was chosen over the Elk, which wasn't considered to be aggressive enough. The college's colors – green and gold symbolizing the foothills and trees, were also established. The next Spring, the college held its first graduation ceremony. A single student, history major John J. Collins, who had transferred from UC Berkeley, graduated.[14] By 1948, the college was already fielding intercollegiate teams in basketball, baseball, and tennis.[14] In Spring 1949, the winning "Fight Hornet Fight" song was composed by Donald McDonald. The State Hornet and Statesman yearbook were first published in 1949.[14]

Several sites for a permanent home for the college were considered. A site at 5th Street and Broadway, a site near Fruitridge and Stockton Boulevard, and a site in the Pocket Area of South Sacramento were all rejected.[14] In 1949, the state purchased 244 acres of what was then peach farm land to be the site of the new college at $1,650 to $1,800 an acre.[15] In December 1952, the school left the Sacramento City College property and moved to its permanent location on the banks of the American River. On February 9, 1953, the then 289-acre campus opened to approximately 2,400 students with a parade through town called "GO EAST WITH WEST", in reference to President West.[14] Parking has notoriously been a problem at the university, and since the beginning, drivers were confronted by a sea of mud. Students would simply drive as close to the buildings as they could and park.[14]

Construction began in 1951. By 1962, 30 new structures had been built and occupied. A campus landmark was created when the Guy West Bridge was erected – a bridge modeled after the Golden Gate Bridge and named after the college's founding president.

In 1955, the first Hornet football team scored its first victory, against Southern Oregon College. Jackrabbits were a problem in the early years and landscapers were permitted to shoot them on sight through the 1960s.[14] In 1972, the school became California State University, Sacramento. In 2004, it formally adopted Sacramento State as its primary name; it had been used in athletics for some time. Today, Sacramento State is the only major four-year comprehensive university in the city of Sacramento.

The university underwent a major expansion in the Korean War years, with the 'heart' of the campus residing in Douglass Hall, Shasta Hall, Sacramento Hall (the administration building).

In 1975, the University Union opened its doors, originally comprising 65,000 square feet. In 1981, the Sacramento State Aquatic Center was established. The Center for California Studies was established the following year. In 1986, Sacramento State established a Master Plan that called for over $100 million in growth. During that same year, the university came within hours of being deliberately flooded as officials contemplated blowing floodgates to avoid a massive levee failure in Sacramento. The 1990s saw additional growth, constructing more than 1.2 million square-feet of space. In 1992, Hornet Stadium was renovated, providing capacity for 26,000 patrons.

In 2000 and 2004, the campus hosted the U.S. Olympic Track and Field Trials. In 2003, Dr. Alexander Gonzalez was appointed the 11th president of the University. In his first year, he launched Destination 2010, an initiative focusing on reforming academic programs and constructing new facilities.

Sacramento State is organized into seven academic colleges and a college of continuing education. The university is also a member of the consortium that operates Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, offering curricula in marine sciences. In keeping with its proximity to a burgeoning electronics industry, the university is developing expanded applications of technology to learn through computerized and televised instruction over a wide area of Northern California.[16]

The university reached an important strategic milestone. Seven years ago, Sacramento State launched Destination 2010, an initiative focused on creating excellent academic programs, new student facilities and a more welcoming campus culture and environment. During that time, the campus constructed the four-story Academic Information Research Center, Parking Structure III (which at 3,000 spaces is the largest in the CSU system), the new Hornet Bookstore, Eli and Edythe Broad Athletic Fieldhouse, and the American River Courtyard residence hall (with 600 beds).[16]

Many prominent icons have lectured or performed at Sacramento State, including Martin Luther King, Jr., Jimi Hendrix, Sheryl Crow, Oliver Stone, Jesse Jackson, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Wangari Maathai, John Kerry, Stokely Carmichael, Woody Harrelson, Maya Soetoro-Ng and Chuck D.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Shasta Hall, many people say, is haunted. Students have talked for years about a ghost in the building's theatre who disrupts play openings. Some think is a state building inspector who fell to his death in the building before it was completed.[14] Now a popular coffee spot, the Roundhouse was controversial when it was built in 1969. Its design put off many people, and President Robert Johns apparently arranged for its construction without the approval of the CSU Board of Trustees.[14] Sequoia Hall was originally constructed to have an attractive white cement finish, but the funding ran short. Today the building stands with plain concrete.[14]

In 1999, Sacramento State was given authority to award its first ever Doctoral degree, a unique find at the time in the California State University. In the past, authority to award any sort of degree beyond Master's in California's higher public education was given solely to the University of California. The program would be a joint Ph.D in history with the University of California, Santa Barbara. However, this program later phased out due to declining enrollment.[28]

The university was given authority again to award its first ever Doctorate in Education (Ed.D) degree in 2007, with its first graduating class in 2010. Since its establishment, the program has branched into several focuses offering different types of degrees.[29]

In 2012, the university was fully accredited to award its first Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT), with the first class entering in fall of 2012. The program is notoriously competitive, with over 400 applications for just 32 seats.[30] This program eventually will fade out the Master's in Physical Therapy by 2015, following standards set by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education.[31][32]

To date, the university now awards two independent doctorates (Ed.D degree and DPT).

In 2004, the university re-branded itself as Sacramento State, or Sac State for short. The formal name is California State University, Sacramento. The terms CSUS, Cal State Sacramento, Sacramento State University, CSU Sacramento and CS Sacramento are inappropriate, per the Identity Style Guide,[33] even though the university's web address is The university also adopted a new logo and seal that replaced the previous design based on the Seal of California. In addition, the exact shades of Sacramento State's colors of green and gold were formalized in the 2005 Style Guide.

President Gonzalez presented the initiative "Redefining the Possible" in his Spring 2012 convocation following Destination 2010's success. This initiative calls for more construction and campus updates, all part of the CSU Capital Outlay,[34] including demolishing several of the original campus buildings in center campus, constructing a Space Planetarium, a 10,000 seat arena, a 4,800 space parking garage (the largest at CSU), four new 8-story dormitory towers, and a 1,200 seat performing arts center – all to be completed over the next 10 years. Robert S. Nelsen, former President at The University of Texas Pan-American begin his duties as President on July 1, 2015.

In 2007, the faculty overwhelmingly (77% of ballots) approved a "No Confidence" vote for President Alexander Gonzalez.[35] The vote expressed anger over the President's handling of finances, including a $6.5 million structural deficit the university is facing. They also accused him of pumping money into student recruitment and promotion rather than academic affairs. In response to the vote Gonzalez publicly replied, "in the 28 years I have been apart of the California State University...I have yet to encounter the level of incivility, mean-spiritedness and outright distortion that I have found among some members of the Sacramento State community. It embarrasses and saddens me."[36][37]

Similarly in 2011, then Sacramento State Police Chief Daniel Davis also received a "No Confidence" vote by 14 out of 15 sworn in officers. The vote came amid seven alleged sexual assaults that occurred the prior fall semester. This was also the second time the police force voiced concerns about the police chief's mismanagement.[38]

Fall Statistics[39][40][41][42][42][43][44][45][46]

Some 35,000 students applied to Sacramento State for the Fall 2012 semester, marking the record number of applications in one semester. Following a CSU-wide trend, the university has seen growth over the past few years in the number of applications.

The campus is consistently one of the top three destinations amongst all universities in the state for California Community College transfer, welcoming over 4,000 new students each academic year.[11]

Sacramento State historically attempts to admit the top 1/3 of California high school graduates. For students entering Fall 2012, 13,728 freshmen were accepted out of 19,702 applicants, a 69.6% acceptance rate. Enrolled freshmen had an average high school GPA of 3.26 and an average SAT score of 960 (out of a possible 1600 for reading and math scores).[47]

For transfer students, Sacramento State accepted 9,218 of 10,566 applicants in the fall of 2012, an 87.2% acceptance rate. The average transfer GPA for Fall 2012 was 3.05. The university accepted 1,434 graduate students out of 3,044 applications for an acceptance rate of 47.1%.

Approximately 30% of incoming freshman live on-campus in the dorms, while around an additional 25% are traditionally accommodated at the Upper Eastside Lofts just across the street from campus at the F65 crossing, providing housing for about 50% for incoming freshman. For the Fall 2012 semester, just about 50% of incoming freshman came from the Sacramento Region, while around 18% came from the San Francisco Bay Area, an additional 13% came from the Northern CA Foothills, and the remaining came in from Southern California (14.4%), other parts of the United States (0.8%), or Foreign Countries (0.4%).

The average course load of all undergraduate students in 12.2 units, classified as a full-time student. For the most recent commencement, the average number of years taken to complete degrees of the class was 4.8, while the average number of units accumulated was 132 (12 above what is needed for a bachelor's).

Sacramento State north entrance

As the sixth-largest campus of the 23 state universities in California, the main campus is composed of 305 acres (123 ha) in the city of Sacramento and lies adjacent to U.S. Route 50.

The campus is bordered by the American River to the East, Union Pacific Railroad tracks to the West, Folsom Boulevard to the South and H Street to the North. The North end of campus is dominated by the University Arboretum, formerly Goethe Arboretum, and residence halls.

Officially "Tree Campus USA", Sacramento State has more than 3,500 trees, with flower gardens, miles of trails stretching along the nearby river parkway, and student housing with recreational areas such as Lake Natoma and Old Sacramento, in addition to its on-campus housing.

Guy West Bridge, a pedestrian bridge built to scale of the Golden Gate Bridge, spans the nearby American River.

There are more than 30 research and community service centers on campus such as the Center for California Studies, the Institute for Social Research, the Center for Collaborative Policy, the Center for Small Business, and the Office of Water Programs.

At the northeastern edge of campus are the dormitories which can currently accommodate 1,700 students. Southwest of the campus is the Upper Eastside Lofts located near the light rail station at Folsom Boulevard and 65th Street and is owned by University Enterprises. The lofts can accommodate an additional 443 students and is a short walk from campus via Hornet Tunnel. The university also purchased a piece of land south of the campus, Romana Site, and plans to construct housing for faculty and students in an apartment style housing complex that will be a close walk to campus.[34]

The Port of Sacramento Japanese School (ポート・オブ・サクラメント補習授業校 Pōto obu Sakuramento Hoshū Jugyō Kō), a weekend supplementary Japanese school, holds its classes in Amador Hall.[48][49] The school's committee is located in Roseville.[50]

Main article: Sacramento State Aquatic Center

Located on Lake Natoma, 15 miles (24 km) east of the university right next to Nimbus Dam, the Sacramento State Aquatic Center is a cooperative operation of the Associated Students of California State University, Sacramento, University Union of Sacramento State, California Department of Boating and Waterways, and the California Department of Parks and Recreation. The center was established in 1981 and has provided instruction to thousands of students. The center houses the Sacramento State Rowing Team, and is the training destination for many other university rowing teams and clubs. The center hosts several national championships, including the Pac 10 Rowing Championships, Pacific Coast Rowing Championships, NCAA Women's Rowing Championships, IRA National Rowing Championships and the West Coast Conference Rowing Championships.

Main article: Julia Morgan House

Located three miles (5 km) west of Sacramento State and was designed by famous architect Julia Morgan. It was donated to the school in 1966 by Sacramento philanthropist and eugenicist Charles Goethe and was placed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. The school remodeled the house in 2000 honored by the California Heritage Council. Sacramento State uses the home hosting lectures, small meetings, conferences, community events, and it is available for public special events such as receptions and weddings. The home's west wing houses the Life Center and provides health and fitness classes for seniors.

Since 1951, the university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Sacramento State is a Space-grant university and is an affiliate institution of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, sponsoring an outreach program to girls and minorities for excellency in Engineering and Computer Science.[51][52] The school is a member of the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. The university is nationally and internationally accredited in specific specialized programs including the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) for Business programs, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for Didactic programs in Dietetics, the American Physical Therapy Association for professional programs in Physical Therapy Administration, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association for programs in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education for various Nursing (CNURED) programs, the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, the National Association of Schools of Music, and the National Association of Schools of Theatre.[53]

Riverside Hall houses the College of Engineering and Computer Science Sequoia Hall houses the College of Natural Sciences & Mathematics

The university comprises the following colleges:

Sacramento State's largest academic major for undergraduates is nursing with nearly 2,000 students,[61] followed by criminal justice with 1,800 students in the department,[62]psychology with 1,600 enrolled,[63] Biological Sciences with over nearly 1,500 students,[64] and Accounting with over 1,200 students.[61]

With nearly 2,700 students, the university's division of Public Affairs is the largest in the California State University (CSU). The university is home to the largest Chemistry program within the CSU with over 400 students.[65] Along with CSUN, it is the only university in California to offer a bachelor's degree in Deaf Studies.[65]

The average class size throughout the university is 38 students.[66] The student-to-faculty ratio is about 28 to 1. (22,461 FTE students to 803 FTE faculty). Most transfer students come from two-year colleges, and about 750 international students from 80 nations. Approximately 160 students from India study abroad at the university, the largest country represented.[67] The school has the largest cooperative education program in the entire state. Students from all majors are placed in paid positions while simultaneously receiving academic credit. Many students work in government-related internships and fellowships. Approximately 36% of students work as volunteers. With nearly 1,800 undergraduate and graduate students, Its criminal justice program is one of the largest in all of North America.[62] The school's College of Engineering and Computer Science is the only university in California to offer a master's degree in Electrical Engineering, and is designated as a national center of cyber-security.[68] The university along with Chico State offers CSU's only Electronic engineering degree option. The College of Business Administration holds is accredited by the AACSB. Sacramento State is the only campus in the CSU to offer a bachelor's degree in Cinematic Arts, Digital cinematography and professional performance.[65] Sacramento State is one of only 649 universities in America to hold this prestigious accrediting, and one of only four universities in California (the others including UC Berkeley, UC San Diego, and CSU Los Angeles).

The university has a significant impact on the Sacramento Region and California statewide economy. It sustains nearly 9,000 jobs in the region and statewide,[84] generates $816 million to the Sacramento economy,[84] and nearly $1 billion to the state economy, with annual spending amongst the campus exceeding $600 million. The campus has the state's largest co-operative education program, placing students in paid positions where they receive academic credit. Biology students help in the Sacramento crime lab with DNA matching while Physical Therapy students are assisting stroke victims regain their mobility, and Government students are staffed at the Capitol. The campus has one of the largest Criminal Justice programs in all of North America with nearly 1,500 undergraduate students and 80 graduate students.[85] Nearly 36% of students volunteer through the Sacramento State Serves program, committing more than 2 million hours of service each year.[84]

The campuses houses over 30 research centers. Notable include:

The College Assistance Migrant Program[93] (CAMP)/High School Equivalent Program is one of nearly 50 federally funded assistance programs that is geared to help migrant or seasonal farmworkers (or children of them) not currently enrolled in school achieve the equivalent of a high school diploma and then subsequently obtain employment. The program serves more than 7,000 annually.

Ranked as one of the top 10 internships in the nation by Forbes,[81] Sacramento State works with the California State government to host the Capital Fellowship program through the Center for California Studies. The Center administers the Jesse M. Unruh Assembly Fellowship, Executive Fellowship, Judicial Administration Fellowship, and California Senate Fellows programs. These programs, known collectively as the Capital Fellows Programs, are nationally recognized. The 18 Assembly Fellows, 18 Senate Fellows, 18 Executive Fellows and 10 Judicial Administration Fellows receive an outstanding opportunity to engage in public service and prepare for future careers, while actively contributing to the development and implementation of public policy in California. The ranks of former fellows and associates include a Justice of the California Supreme Court, members of the United States Congress and the State Legislature, a deputy director of the Peace Corps, corporate executives, and local government and community leaders.

The Center provides services for public disputes at the state, regional, and local levels, ranging from conflicts between agencies to multi-party disputes on major policies. Its methods are mediation, negotiation, and consensus-building. It tries to reach solutions satisfying everyone while avoiding traditional adversarial processes.

Created in 1952 and offering one of the best ranked graduate programs in Speech Pathology Audiology in the US,[77] the Maryjane Rees Language Speech and Hearing Center is a renowned clinic in the Sacramento Region offering low cost services for those with speech and language disorders. Working in conjunction with the department of SPA, the clinic employs five faculty members, 20 part-time faculty, 60 graduate students, and 160 undergraduate students offering them exposure to a wide range of fields. Since its establishment, the clinic now serves approximately 200 clients a week and has since served over 14,000 people aged from 2 to 102 coming from all over different parts of Northern California.

Main article: Sacramento State Hornets See also: Sacramento State Hornets men's basketball, Sacramento State Hornets football, and Sacramento State Men's Rowing Team Athletics wordmark Sacramento State athletics mark

The university offers 21 intercollegiate sports. In hopes of expanding its athletics department even further, the university added its 21st sport, Women's Sand Volleyball in the Spring of 2013.[94] Sacramento State sports teams participate in NCAA Division I (FCS for College Football). Sacramento State's colors are green and gold and its mascot is the Hornet. Conference breakdowns are as follows:

Scholarships are offered in all sports. The football and track and field teams compete in Hornet Stadium, baseball at John Smith Field, and the volleyball, men's and women's basketball and gymnastics teams call Colberg Court home, in honor of legendary volleyball coach Debby Colberg. The baseball stadium was renamed John Smith Field in 2011 in honor of the long-time head coach. Most athletic teams compete in the Big Sky Conference. Sacramento State is the only school from California in the Big Sky, which also includes Eastern Washington, Portland State, Idaho State, Northern Colorado, Northern Arizona and Weber State. UC Davis and Cal Poly joined the Big Sky for football only in 2012.

In 2013, the women's rowing team was granted access into an NCAA-affiliated conference, Conference USA (C-USA). Previously the team competed in Western Intercollegiate Rowing Association (WIRA) which is not recognized as a conference by the NCAA. Effective for the 2013–14 season, along with San Diego State University, the rowing team transferred into C-USA, with 12 rowing members, increasing competition, and providing eligibility for NCAA Championships nationally.[97] However, the team only competed for one season in C-USA; it will move along with San Diego State to the American Athletic Conference beginning in 2014–15.[96]

In 2003 and from 2005 to 2007, the university hosted the NCAA Track and Field Championships at Hornet Stadium.

The California Education Code §89901 identifies auxiliary organizations of the California State University.[98] Sacramento State currently has several auxiliary organizations:[99]

The school hosts Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps, Detachment 088, which trains US Air Force cadets from Sacramento State and University of California Davis. It is currently the largest Detachment in Northern California.[citation needed]

Old United States Army ROTC CSU, Sacramento Shoulder sleeve insignia

An independent Army ROTC program existed until the 1996 when the program was phased out by California State University, Sacramento President Donald Gerth due to the Army's policy of "Don't ask, don't tell".[100] The program was allowed back onto campus in 1997, due to the possibility of the campus losing federal student aid and research funding.[101] In 2002, the program received the gold MacArthur ROTC Leadership Award.[101] The program currently exists as an extension of the Forged Gold Battalion based at University of California, Davis.[102][103]

Associated Students Inc. is a nonprofit corporation that provides programs, services, and student government for Sacramento State, ostensibly through California Education Code.[104] ASI is a California recognized 501(c)(3) corporation. Students elect the Board of Directors, which consists of the President, Executive Vice President, Vice President of Finance, Vice President of University Affairs, Vice President of Academic Affairs, a representative from each of the academic colleges, a representative for undeclared students, and a representative for graduate students. ASI has a budget of over $6 million, which is collected through semesterly student fees and revenues generated through its programs: Peak Adventures, Aquatic Center, Children's Center, and ASI student shop.

Like most other CSUs, ASI offers a unique day care center for faculty, staff, or student's children ages newborn to five years. The ASI Children's Center is accredited by the NAEYC,[105] something that only about 7% of children's centers are endorsed by. Child Development and Teacher Education majors are given the opportunity to work with the Children's Center.

Sacramento State owns and operates multiple public radio stations throughout California in close cooperation with Capital Public Radio.

Two of these stations are KXPR and KXJZ, both on FM. KXPR plays classical and jazz music. KXJZ offers local news and talk programming, including several popular shows like "This American Life", "A Prairie Home Companion", "Car Talk" and others. The listener-supported stations broadcast without commercials and with the support of underwriters. Both stations carry programming from National Public Radio.

KSSU 1580AM is a non-profit free format radio station at Sacramento State and part of Associated Students. The radio station has only a 3-watt signal and is not strong enough to broadcast much farther than the campus, but it can be heard all over the world at KSSU is maintained and funded by the Associated Students. KSSU.COM has formed itself into being one of the premier college radio stations in North America. In 2007 the station won Music Director of the year from the College Music Journal and then returned to New York for the award show in 2008 with 8 nominations for awards by CMJ. In 2008 KSSU.COM was also nominated for College Radio Station of the Year by MTVU. Notable former DJ's include actor and international hip hop artist, Only Won who gave credit to KSSU at the 2010 Distinguished Service award for influencing his career in the music industry.[106]

The State Hornet serves as Sacramento State's student newspaper. The State Hornet publishes 14 or 15 issues each semester and produces content for a daily Web site. The online edition carries the content of the print edition, posted Wednesday mornings, and publishes unique content to the site as generated by the staff. The 1999–2000 staff of the newspaper, led by Editor-in-Chief David Sommers and Faculty Advisor Sylvia Fox, was awarded the National Newspaper Pacemaker Award, considered to be the highest national honor in collegiate journalism and unofficially known as the "Pulitzer Prizes of student journalism."[107] In 2012, the newspaper was placed in the Associated Collegiate Press Pacemaker Finalists category.[108] The newspaper is formally administered by the Department of Communication Studies in the College of Arts and Letters.[109]

The CSUS student activity center is the University Union. The University Union is unique in that it is the original building that was first structured in 1972. It has gone under major renovations throughout the years, with the first phase in 1992 that added a large ballroom and space for food vendors and meeting rooms and other extensions. In 1998, the Union underwent another major renovation again, adding another 180,000 square feet for certain University Outlets such as KSSU and Peak Adventures (which have both since moved). In 2012, the Union yet again underwent major renovations, including adding the university operated restaurant Good Eats, new flooring and stage demolition in the Redwood Room, a complete remodel of Round Table Pizza, an addition of the much requested "prayer room" or "quiet room" on the second floor, a complete remodel of the Terminal Lounge on the second floor, and tearing down the University Center Restaurant and building the new Epicure Restaurant.[110]

Much is offered, including a large fast food court, a game room, public computers with internet access, free WiFi, conference rooms, the university's main auditoria, a prayer room, and many offices for student organizations including the Pride Center, the State Hornet (student paper), and others.

Sac State officials have announced an expansion of The University Union will begin in the first quarter of 2017.[111] This expansion will add 71,000 square feet of space consisting of "a storefront for Peak Adv

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Sacramento (/ˌsækrəˈmɛnt/; Spanish: [sakɾaˈmento]) is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley, known as the Sacramento Valley. Its estimated 2016 population of 493,025 makes it the sixth-largest city in California, the fastest-growing big city in the state,[11] and the 35th largest city in the United States.[12][13] Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which includes seven counties with a 2010 population of 2,414,783.[10] Its metropolitan area is the fourth largest in California after the Greater Los Angeles area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area, and is the 27th largest in the United States. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City".[14]

Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr., his son John Augustus Sutter, Jr., and James W. Marshall. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutter's Fort, which was established by Sutter. During the California Gold Rush, Sacramento was a major distribution point, a commercial and agricultural center, and a terminus for wagon trains, stagecoaches, riverboats, the telegraph, the Pony Express, and the First Transcontinental Railroad.

The city was named after the Sacramento River, which forms its western border. The river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santísimo Sacramento (Blessed Sacrament), referring to the Catholic Eucharist.

Today, the city is known for its diversity, tree canopy (largest in the U.S.),[15][16] historic Old Sacramento, evolving contemporary culture as the most "hipster city" in California,[17][18] sunny climate, state administration, and farm-to-fork dining.[19]California State University, Sacramento, is the largest university in the city and a designated "Tree City USA" campus. The University of the Pacific is a private university with one of its three campuses, the McGeorge School of Law, in Sacramento. In addition, the University of California, Davis, 16 miles west of Sacramento, operates UC Davis Medical Center, a world-renowned research hospital, in the city of Sacramento.

Main article: History of Sacramento, California See also: Timeline of Sacramento, California

Nisenan (Southern Maidu) and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, and by fruits, bulbs, seeds, and roots gathered throughout the year.

In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths. The air was like champagne, and (the Spaniards) drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento! (It's like the Blessed Sacrament.)"[20] The valley and the river were then christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist.

Inside the historical Sutter's Fort. Main building housing John Sutter's offices. (2009)

John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres. The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick.[21]

Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. Later that same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire,[21] however, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some very thin margins of credit.[22]

Sacramento in 1849

In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma (located some 50 miles (80.5 km) northeast of the fort), a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population. In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a 'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal 'bane' for him.

By December 1848, John Sutter Jr., in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr., however the father, being deeply in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For commercial reasons the new city was named "Sacramento City," after the Sacramento River. Sutter Jr. and Brannon hired topographical engineer William H. Warner to draft the official layout of the city, which included 26 lettered and 31 numbered streets (today's grid from C St. to Broadway and from Front St. to Alhambra Blvd.). Unfortunately, a certain bitterness grew between the elder Sutter and his son as Sacramento became an overnight commercial success (Sutter's Fort, Mill and the town of Sutterville, all founded by John Sutter, Sr., would eventually fail).

The citizens of Sacramento adopted a city charter in 1849, which was recognized by the state legislature in 1850. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850.[23] During the early 1850s, the Sacramento valley was devastated by floods, fires and cholera epidemics. Despite this, because of its position just downstream from the Mother Lode in the Sierra Nevada, the new city grew, quickly reaching a population of 10,000.

Paifang at Sacramento's Chinatown Mall

Throughout the early 1840s and 1850s, China was at war with Great Britain and France in the First and Second Opium Wars. The wars, along with endemic poverty in China, helped drive many Chinese immigrants to America. Many first came to San Francisco, which was then the largest city in California, which was known as "Dai Fow" (The Big City) and some came eventually to Sacramento (then the second-largest city in California), which is known as "Yee Fow" (Second City). Many of these immigrants came in hope of a better life as well as the possibility of finding gold in the foothills east of Sacramento.

Sacramento's Chinatown was located on "I" Street from Second to Sixth Streets. At the time, this area of "I" Street was considered a health hazard because - lying within a levee zone - it was lower than other parts of the city, which were situated on higher land. Throughout Sacramento's Chinatown history, there were fires, acts of discrimination, and prejudicial legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act that was not repealed until 1943. The mysterious fires were thought to be set off by those who did not take a liking to the Chinese working class.[24] Ordinances on what was viable building material were set into place to try to get the Chinese to move out. Newspapers such as The Sacramento Union wrote stories at the time that portrayed the Chinese in an unfavorable light to inspire ethnic discrimination and drive the Chinese away. As the years passed, a railroad was created over parts of the Chinatown, and further politics and laws would make it even harder for Chinese workers to sustain a living in Sacramento. While the east side of the country fought for higher wages and fewer working hours, many cities in the western United States wanted the Chinese out because of the belief that they were stealing jobs from the white working class.

The Chinese remained resilient despite these efforts. They built their buildings out of bricks just as the building guidelines were established. They helped build part of the railroads that span the city as well as made a great contribution to the transcontinental railroad that spans the United States. They also helped build the levees within Sacramento and its surrounding cities. As a result, the Chinese are a well-recognized part of Sacramento's history and heritage.

While most of Sacramento's Chinatown has now been razed, a small Chinatown mall remains as well as a museum dedicated to the history of Sacramento's Chinatown and the contributions Chinese Americans have made to the city. Amtrak sits along what was part of Sacramento's Chinatown "I" Street.[25][26]

See also: Urban redevelopment in Sacramento, California California's State Capitol Building

The California State Legislature, with the support of Governor John Bigler, moved to Sacramento in 1854. The capital of California under Spanish (and, subsequently, Mexican) rule had been Monterey, where in 1849 the first Constitutional Convention and state elections were held. The convention decided that San Jose would be the new state's capital. After 1850, when California's statehood was ratified, the legislature met in San Jose until 1851, Vallejo in 1852, and Benicia in 1853, before moving to Sacramento. In the 1879 Constitutional Convention, Sacramento was named to be the permanent state capital.

Begun in 1860 to be reminiscent of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., the Classical Revival style California State Capitol was completed in 1874. In 1861, the legislative session was moved to the Merchants Exchange Building in San Francisco for one session because of massive flooding in Sacramento. The legislative chambers were first occupied in 1869 while construction continued. From 1862 to 1868, part of the Leland Stanford Mansion was used for the governor's offices during Stanford's tenure as the Governor; and the legislature met in the Sacramento County Courthouse.

Garden at Sacramento, California State Capitol photo taken July 3, 2002 The Tower Bridge, built in 1935, a popular landmark

With its new status and strategic location, Sacramento quickly prospered and became the western end of the Pony Express. Later it became a terminus of the First Transcontinental Railroad, which began construction in Sacramento in 1863 and was financed by "The Big Four"—Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker, Collis P. Huntington, and Leland Stanford.

In 1850 and again in 1861, Sacramento citizens were faced with a completely flooded town. After the devastating 1850 flood, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic, which crippled the town for several years. In 1861, Governor Leland Stanford, who was inaugurated in early January 1861, had to attend his inauguration in a rowboat, which was not too far from his house in town on N street. The flood waters were so bad, the legend says, that when he returned to his house, he had to enter into it through the second floor window. From 1862 until the mid-1870s Sacramento raised the level of its downtown by building reinforced brick walls on its downtown streets, and filling the resulting street walls with dirt. Thus the previous first floors of buildings became the basements, with open space between the street and the building, previously the sidewalk, now at the basement level. Most property owners used screw jacks to raise their buildings to the new grade. The sidewalks were covered, initially by wooden sidewalks, then brick barrel vaults, and eventually replaced by concrete sidewalks. Over the years, many of these underground spaces have been filled or destroyed by subsequent development. However, it is still possible to view portions of the "Sacramento Underground".

The same rivers that earlier brought death and destruction began to provide increasing levels of transportation and commerce. Both the American and especially Sacramento rivers would be key elements in the economic success of the city. In fact, Sacramento effectively controlled commerce on these rivers, and public works projects were funded though taxes levied on goods unloaded from boats and loaded onto rail cars in the historic Sacramento Rail Yards. Now both rivers are used extensively for recreation. The American River is a 5-mph (8-km/h) waterway for all power boats (including jet-ski and similar craft) (Source Sacramento County Parks & Recreation) and has become an international attraction for rafters and kayaking.

The Sacramento River sees many boaters, who can make day trips to nearby sloughs or continue along the Delta to the Bay Area and San Francisco. The Delta King, a paddlewheel steamboat which for eighteen months lay on the bottom of the San Francisco Bay, was refurbished and now boasts a hotel, a restaurant, and two different theaters for nightlife along the Old Sacramento riverfront.

Sacramento Regional Transit Light-Rail

The city's current charter was adopted by voters in 1920.[27] As a charter city, Sacramento is exempt from many laws and regulations passed by the state legislature. The city has expanded continuously over the years. The 1964 merger of the City of North Sacramento with Sacramento substantially increased its population, and large annexations of the Natomas area eventually led to significant population growth throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.

Sacramento County (along with a portion of adjacent Placer County) is served by a customer-owned electric utility, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Sacramento voters approved the creation of SMUD in 1923.[28] In April 1946, after 12 years of litigation, a judge ordered Pacific Gas & Electric to transfer title of Sacramento's electric distribution system to SMUD. Today SMUD is the sixth-largest public electric utility in the U.S., and is a leader for innovative programs and services, including the development of clean fuel resources, such as solar power.[29] The year following the creation of SMUD, 1924, brought several events in Sacramento: Standard Oil executive Verne McGeorge established McGeorge School of Law, American department store Weinstock & Lubin opened a new store at 12th and K street, the US$2 million Senator Hotel was open, Sacramento's drinking water became filtered and treated drinking water, and Sacramento boxer Georgie Lee fought Francisco Guilledo, a Filipino professional boxer known as Pancho Villa, at L Street Auditorium on March 21.[30]

Barracks set up for families of Japanese ancestry at the Sacramento Assembly Center.

Early in World War II, the Sacramento Assembly Center (also known as the Walerga Assembly Center) was established to house Japanese Americans forcibly "evacuated" from the West Coast under Executive Order 9066. The camp was one of fifteen temporary detention facilities where over 110,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds of them U.S. citizens, were held while construction on the more permanent War Relocation Authority camps was completed. The assembly center was built on the site of a former migrant labor camp, and inmates began arriving from Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties on May 6, 1942. It closed after only 52 days, on June 26, and the population of 4,739 was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp. The site was then turned over to the Army Signal Corps and dedicated as Camp Kohler. After the war and the end of the incarceration program, returning Japanese Americans were often unable to find housing and so 234 families temporarily lived at the former assembly center. Camp Kohler was destroyed by a fire in December 1947, and the assembly center site is now part of the Foothill Farms-North Highlands subdivision.[31]

The Sacramento-Yolo Port District was created in 1947, and ground was broken on the Port of Sacramento in 1949. On June 29, 1963, with 5,000 spectators waiting to welcome her, the Motor Vessel Taipei Victory arrived.[32] The port was open for business. The Nationalist Chinese flagship, freshly painted for the historic event, was loaded with 5,000 tons of bagged rice for Mitsui Trading Co. bound for Okinawa and 1,000 tons of logs for Japan. She was the first ocean-going vessel in Sacramento since the steamship Harpoon in 1934. The Port of Sacramento has been plagued with operating losses in recent years and faces bankruptcy. This severe loss in business is due to the heavy competition from the Port of Stockton, which has a larger facility and a deeper channel. As of 2006, the city of West Sacramento took responsibility for the Port of Sacramento. During the Vietnam War era, the Port of Sacramento was the major terminus in the supply route for all military parts, hardware and other cargo going into Southeast Asia.

West America Bank Building

In 1967, Ronald Reagan became the last Governor of California to live permanently in the city. A new executive mansion, constructed by private funds in a Sacramento suburb for Reagan, remained vacant for nearly forty years and was recently sold by the state.

The 1980s and 1990s saw the closure of several local military bases: McClellan Air Force Base, Mather Air Force Base, and Sacramento Army Depot. In 1980, there was another flood. The flood's damage affected the "boat section" of Interstate 5. The culmination of a series of storms as well as a faulty valve are believed to have caused this damage.

US Bank Tower completed in 2008

In the early 1990s, Mayor Joe Serna attempted to lure the Los Angeles Raiders football team to Sacramento, selling $50 million in bonds as earnest money. When the deal fell through, the bond proceeds were used to construct several large projects, including expanding the Sacramento Convention Center Complex and refurbishing of the Memorial Auditorium. Serna renamed a city park for migrant worker rights activist Cesar Chavez. Through his effort, Sacramento became the first major city in the country to have a paid municipal holiday honoring Chavez.

In spite of military base closures and the decline of agricultural food processing, Sacramento has continued to experience population growth in recent years. Primary sources of population growth are an influx of residents from the nearby San Francisco Bay Area, as well as immigration from Asia and Latin America. From 1990 to 2000, the city's population grew by 14.7%. The Census Bureau estimates that from 2000 to 2007, the county's population increased by nearly 164,000 residents.[33]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s (decade), Mayor Heather Fargo made several abortive attempts to provide taxpayer financing of a new sports arena for the Maloof brothers, owners of the Sacramento Kings NBA Basketball franchise. In November 2006, Sacramento voters soundly defeated a proposed sales tax hike to finance the plan. The defeat was due in part to competing plans for the new arena and its location. After acquiring the majority stake in the Sacramento Kings, the team’s new owner, Vivek Ranadivé with the help of the city, agreed to build a new Arena in the downtown area. With a final estimated cost of $558.2 million, Sacramento’s Golden 1 Center opened on September 30, 2016.

Despite a devolution of state bureaucracy, the state government remains by far Sacramento's largest employer. The City of Sacramento expends considerable effort to keep state agencies from moving outside the city limits.[34] In addition, many federal agencies have offices in Sacramento. (The California Supreme Court normally sits in nearby San Francisco.)

The Sacramento River near the old pumping station Aerial view of the city of Sacramento California, showing the geography of the surrounding area.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 100.1 square miles (259 km2), 97.81% of it land, and 2.19% of it water.

Depth to groundwater is typically about 30 feet (9 m). Much of the land to the west of the city (in Yolo County) is permanently reserved for a vast flood control basin (the Yolo Bypass), due to the city's historical vulnerability to floods. As a result, the greater metropolitan area sprawls only four miles (6 km) west of downtown (as West Sacramento, California) but 30 miles (48 km) northeast and east, into the Sierra Nevada foothills, and 10 miles (16 km) to the south into valley farmland.

The city is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River, and has a deep-water port connected to the San Francisco Bay by a channel through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. It is the shipping and rail center for the Sacramento Valley. Food processing is among the major industries in the area.[35]

Panoramic view of downtown Sacramento from West Sacramento Sacramento, California by drone

The city groups most of its neighborhoods into four areas:

Alkali Flat, Boulevard Park, Campus Commons, Sacramento State, Dos Rios Triangle, Downtown, East Sacramento, Fab Forties, Mansion Flats, Marshall School, Midtown, New Era Park, McKinley Village, Newton Booth, Old Sacramento, Poverty Ridge, Richards, Richmond Grove, River Park, Elmhurst, Sierra Oaks, Southside Park.[36]

Airport, Carleton Tract, Freeport Manor, Golf Course Terrace, Greenhaven, Curtis Park, Hollywood Park, Land Park, Little Pocket, Mangan Park, Meadowview, Parkway, Pocket, Sacramento City College, South Land Park, Valley Hi / North Laguna, Z'Berg Park.[37]

Alhambra Triangle, Avondale, Brentwood, Carleton Tract, Colonial Heights, Colonial Village, Colonial Village North, Curtis Park, Elmhurst, Fairgrounds, Florin, Industrial Park, Fruitridge Manor, Glen Elder, Glenbrook, Granite Regional Park, Lawrence Park, Med Center, North City Farms, Oak Park, Packard Bell, South City Farms, Southeast Village, Tahoe Park, Tahoe Park East, Tahoe Park South, Tallac Village, Vintage Park, Churchill Downs, and Woodbine.[38]

Ben Ali, Del Paso Heights, Gardenland, Hagginwood, McClellan Heights West, Natomas (north, south, west), North Sacramento, Northgate, Robla, Swanston Estates, Terrace Manor, Valley View Acres, and Woodlake.[39]

Additional prominent regions and neighborhoods in the city include American River Parkway, Arden-Arcade, Arden Fair, Cal Expo, Capital Avenue, Coffing, College Glen, College Greens, Colonial Manor, Cordova, Creekside, East Fruitridge, Elder Creek, Elkhorn, Elvas, Erikson Industrial Park, Excelsior Sunrise, Foothill Farms, Franklin, Frates Ranch, Gateway Center, Gateway West, Glenwood Meadows, Hansen Park, Heritage Park, Johnson Business Park, Johnson Heights, Mayhew, Metro Center, Mills, Natomas Corporate Center, Natomas Creek, Natomas Crossing, Natomas Park, Newton Booth, Noralto, Northpointe, Norwood, Oak Knoll, Old North Sacramento, Parker Homes, Point West, Raley Industrial Park, Regency Park, Richardson Village, Richmond Grove, Rosemont, Sierra Oaks, Sports Complex, Strawberry Manor, Sundance Lake, Swanston Palms, Town and Country Village, Upper Land Park, Village 5, Village 7, Village 12, Village 14, Village Green, Walerga, Walsh Station, West Del Paso Heights, Westlake, Willowcreek, Wills Acres, Winn Park, Woodside and Youngs Heights.[40][41]

Sacramento has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa), characterized by damp to wet, mild winters and hot, dry summers. The wet season is generally October through April, though there may be a day or two of light rainfall in June or September. The normal annual mean temperature is 61.0 °F (16.1 °C), with the monthly daily average temperature ranging from 46.4 °F (8.0 °C) in December to 75.5 °F (24.2 °C) in July.[42] Summer heat is often moderated by a sea breeze known as the "delta breeze" which comes through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the San Francisco Bay, and temperatures cool down sharply at night.

The foggiest months are December and January. Tule fog can be extremely dense, lowering visibility to less than 100 feet (30 m) and making driving conditions extremely hazardous. Chilling tule fog events have been known to last for several consecutive days or weeks. During Tule fog events, temperatures do not exceed 50 degrees.

Snowfall is rare in Sacramento, which is only 25 ft (7.6 m) above sea level. In the downtown area, there have been only 3 significant snow accumulations since 1900, the last one being in 1976.[43] During especially cold winter and spring storms, intense showers do occasionally produce a significant amount of hail, which can create hazardous driving conditions. Snowfall that does fall in the city often melts upon ground contact, with traceable amounts occurring in some years. Significant annual snow accumulations occur in the foothills located 40 miles (64 km) east of the city, which had brief and traceable amounts of snowfall in January 2002, December 2009 and February 2011.[44][45] The greatest snowfall ever recorded in Sacramento was 3 inches (8 cm) on January 5, 1888.

On average, there are 73 days where the high exceeds 90 °F (32 °C), and 14 days where the high exceeds 100 °F (38 °C); On the other extreme, there are 15 days where the temperature does not exceed 50 °F (10 °C), and 15 freezing nights per year.[42] Official temperature extremes range from 18 °F (−8 °C) on December 22, 1990 to 115 °F (46 °C) on June 15, 1961;[42] a station around 5 mi (8.0 km) east-southeast of the city dipped to 17 °F (−8 °C) on December 11, 1932.[46]

The average annual precipitation is 18.52 inches (470 mm). On average, precipitation falls on 60 days each year in Sacramento, and nearly all of this falls during the winter months. Average January rainfall is 3.67 in (93 mm), and measurable precipitation is rare during the summer months. In February 1992, Sacramento had 16 consecutive days of rain, resulting in an accumulation of 6.41 in (163 mm) for the period. On rare occasions, monsoonal moisture surges from the Desert Southwest can bring upper-level moisture to the Sacramento region, leading to increased summer cloudiness, humidity, and even light showers and thunderstorms. Monsoon clouds do occur, usually during late July through early September. Sacramento is the second most flood susceptible city in the United States after New Orleans.[47]

Sacramento has been noted as being the sunniest location on the planet for three months of the year, from July through September. It holds the distinction as the sunniest month, in terms of percent possible sunshine, of anywhere in the world; July in Sacramento averages 14 hours and 12 minutes of sunshine per day, amounting to approximately 98% of possible sunshine.[48]

Sacramento is notably diverse racially, ethnically, and by household income, and has a notable lack of interracial disharmony. In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City".[14] The U.S. Census Bureau also groups Sacramento with other U.S. cities having a "high diversity" rating of the diversity index.[54] Moreover, Sacramento is one of the most well-integrated U.S. cities, having a relatively high level of ethnic and racial heterogeneity within its neighborhoods.[55]

Map of racial distribution in Sacramento, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

The 2010 United States Census[59] reported that Sacramento had a population of 466,488. The population density was 4,660.0 people per square mile (1,799.2/km²).

The racial makeup of Sacramento was :

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 125,276 persons (26.9%); 22.6% of Sacramento's population is of Mexican heritage, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Salvadoran, 0.2% Guatemalan, and 0.2% Nicaraguan.[60]Non-Hispanic Whites were 34.5% of the population in 2010,[56] down from 71.4% in 1970.[57]

The Census reported that 458,174 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 4,268 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 4,046 (0.9%) were institutionalized. Also, with the recent housing crash there have been no changes to these numbers.

There were 174,624 households, out of which 57,870 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 65,556 (37.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27,640 (15.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10,534 (6.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 13,234 (7.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,498 (1.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 53,342 households (30.5%) were made up of individuals and 14,926 (8.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. There were 103,730 families (59.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.37.

Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita, ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California behind San Francisco and slightly behind Oakland, with roughly 10% of the city's total population identifying themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[61]

The age distribution of the city was follows: 116,121 people (24.9%) were under the age of 18, 52,438 people (11.2%) aged 18 to 24, 139,093 people (29.8%) aged 25 to 44, 109,416 people (23.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 49,420 people (10.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.0 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

There were 190,911 housing units at an average density of 1,907.1 per square mile (736.3/km²), of which 86,271 (49.4%) were owner-occupied, and 88,353 (50.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.3%. 231,593 people (49.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 226,581 people (48.6%) lived in rental housing units.

The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament in Cathedral Square, downtown.

As of the census[62] of 2000, there are 407,018 people, 154,581 households, and 91,202 families residing in the city. The population density is 4,189.2 people per square mile (1,617.4/km²). There are 163,957 housing units at an average density of 1,687.5 per square mile (651.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 41.1% White, 19.5% African American, 1.3% Native American, 12.6% Asian, 0.9% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander, 11.0% from other races, and 6.4% from two or more races. 21.6% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 154,581 households out of which 30.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% are married couples living together, 15.4% have a fema

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